The year is 2014, and it’s about time we take a moment to stop and take in all the progress that has been made in bodybuilding subculture over the past few decades. Thanks to the meatheads across the globe we now have wasted more egg yolks than any other species ever will and exhausted practically all of the Earth’s protein-rich foods.
But fear not, for the new breed of bro’s out there can now focus on more prevalent topics like which flavor of Pop-Tart is best for “If It Fits Your Macros” (IIFYM) tree huggers and whether or not it’s imperative to ingest a leucine-rich protein source precisely 30.550987 seconds after the cessation of weight training for optimal protein synthesis.
Alright, satire aside, there is some reality behind these preceding statements as along with the evolution of health, fitness and bodybuilding people have developed some odd (for lack of a better term) habits that they feel are necessary in order to achieve their best look and performance. But the pragmatist in me looks at a lot of those behaviors and wonders, “Why?”
Why do bodybuilders often dump the egg yolk and only eat the white? Why is sodium inherently unhealthy? Why is a bland, plain, monotonous diet inherently healthier and better for fat loss and muscle building? Why are carbohydrates forbidden after 6PM (or any other random evening hour)? Why do most gym-goers think their body will wither away to nothing if they don’t eat a meal exactly every 3 hours on the dot?
Is there any veracity to these habits or has bodybuilding subculture instilled baseless practices in people who set foot in the gym? Does the human body really operate in such a black-and-white fashion, as many of these iron addicts believe?
The task at hand is large, but I think it’s well worthwhile to take an impartial approach and dive into these popular bodybuilding and fitness habits to decipher what really has some sound foundation and validity to it, and what is just hogwash being propagated by people with ulterior motives and subjective beliefs.
Let the games begin
This is the meat and potatoes folks; where boys become men and girls become women…Alright, maybe I’m making too much of this but you get the idea. Below you will find a list of habits/behaviors that have come about in health, fitness and bodybuilding subculture and a detailed look at whether or not they make much sense in the grand scheme of things.
Before you move on, please take a moment to cleanse yourself of any predetermined bias you may have with any habits you currently practice. I was once a free-range-chicken-breast-loving-6-meal-per-day-Tupperware-carrying drone myself, but thankfully my open-mindedness has shown me that maybe that isn’t a necessary lifestyle, even for bodybuilding purposes. If you come into this with a closed mind and unwillingness to accept evidence-based facts despite your prior convictions, you’re probably wasting your time.
1. The “Anabolic Window of Opportunity” doesn’t shut as quick as you think
I find it fitting to start off with the longstanding idea that we have a highly limited amount of time after resistance training to replenish the body with nutrients. This is undoubtedly one of the most practiced habits in bodybuilding subculture, with many gym-goers going into a panic mode if they go a mere 15-30 minutes after training without their precision protein and carbohydrate shake.
It may come to surprise you that there is actually quite a bit of time after training has occurred (especially if you’ve eaten a solid meal before training) to reap the physiological benefits of feeding the body, and by “quite a bit of time” we’re talking several hours, not just minutes like so many people believe.
Why is this you ask? Well take into consideration that if you eat a decent-sized meal prior to training it can take upwards of 5-6 hours before circulating substrate levels recede back to baseline. Therefore, the food you’ve eaten before training is often still being utilized even after your training has occurred.
Moreover, the acute responses to resistance training such as up-regulated GLUT4 expression in muscle tissue and enhanced muscle protein synthetic (MPS) response appear to last for hours, even when training in a fasted state. [1,2] However, if you train fasted it certainly would be wise to take in protein/amino acids soon after training to take advantage of those acute metabolic responses to training.
The bottom line
Before you read this and go start praising the idea of starving yourself after weight training, the take-home message here is in no way saying that you should not eat at all…What it’s saying is that you don’t need to be fretting over every last nanosecond that passes after your complete your final rep. Just make sure you take in a quality protein source (and other nutrients if desired) within a few hours (say 0-3, based on the research) after training and you’ll be fine.
Also consider that there is no research that suggests taking protein in after training impedes the anabolic response, but it’s likely that the exact timing is not as critical as many people seem to believe.
2. If you want to get yoked…eat a damn yolk for once
As alluded to in the preamble of this article, many bodybuilders and health enthusiasts insist on ditching whole eggs in favor of the egg whites. This practice seems to stem from the idea that egg yolks contain fat (and cholesterol) and therefore are inherently useless and unhealthy. However, this supposition is wildly shortsighted.
Consider this, an egg white is literally a few grams of protein with minute amounts of micronutrients. The egg yolk, on the other hand, is a highly nutrient-dense food, containing nominal amounts of B vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins (like Vitamin A/E/D/K), and is a good source of the heart-healthy essential fatty acid DHA.
Furthermore, if you avoid whole eggs (and/or yolks) for fear of their cholesterol content, research thus far has suggested that dietary cholesterol is not as significant of a factor as saturated fat intake is when it comes to raising cholesterol levels.  In fact, some studies suggest that eating a few whole eggs per day may actually improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of an individual. 
The bottom line
The main thing to draw from this is that foods are much more than just their macronutrient composition and calorie content. The plus side to egg whites is that they’re low in calories and contain quality protein, but this comes at the cost of being devoid of much else nutritionally. Contrarily, egg yolks are micronutrient-dense and also a great source of protein and essential fatty acids.
Obviously egg yolks have more calorie content due to the extra macronutrients, but they are not “empty calories”. Also, thanks to the fat content, egg yolks will be quite a bit more satiating than an egg white.
At the end of the day, you shouldn’t be afraid to keep a few egg yolks when making your morning omelet. Just think, when you eat whole eggs, you are getting the best of both worlds and you don’t have to sit around separating each egg worrying that any drop of yellow in your frying pan will kill you.
3. Want to build muscle? Don’t “spike” insulin, just raise it a bit
Almost every gym junkie will tell you that promptly after training you need to hit the body with fast-absorbing carbohydrates to elicit a dramatic insulin response. This sounds great in theory, since insulin is a highly anabolic storage hormone and conducive to muscle growth and repair.
But before you run off looking for the closest bottle of dextrose-laden Gatorade to chug with your protein, there actually doesn’t appear to be much “extra” benefit for muscle protein synthesis from exorbitant increases in insulin in the physiological range (the response is not linear). Research seems to indicate that while some insulin does amplify the muscle protein synthesis response to feeding, there is a point of saturation in which extra insulin doesn’t confer a more intense response. 
Also, consider that you can still achieve a sufficient insulin response from complex carbohydrates that aren’t necessarily high in glycemic index. This is to say you don’t have to “spike” your insulin. A slow, transient insulin response will provide much the same muscle protein synthesis benefits as a rapid, acute surge.
The bottom line
Ultimately, insulin does indeed augment the muscle protein synthesis response to a nominal dose of amino acids, but superfluous amounts of fast-absorbing carbohydrates are not necessary nor do they provide extra benefits (at least as far as muscle protein synthesis goes). 
As far as carbohydrate source goes, that will mainly depend on what your overall goal is. I could see the case for fast-absorbing carbohydrates in the case of endurance athletes and people needing to replenish glycogen quickly or for bodybuilders who train for extended periods of time. The other thing to keep in mind is that fructose (mainly found in fruits) is not an insulinogenic carbohydrate, so don’t rely purely on fructose-rich foods (like most fruits) as a carbohydrate source.
4. The protein conundrum—do you really need 2 grams per pound of bodyweight?
Protein, protein, protein…it seems to pervade bodybuilding subculture that the more protein you eat, the better. But how much is really needed? Many methods/programs, like DoggCrapp (DC) training, preach that upwards of 2 grams per pound of lean bodyweight is best. Yet, there is little research that suggests you can benefit such amounts of protein.
In fact, an evaluation of the protein needs of strength-trained athletes actually suggests that a more modest amount (around .9-1.25g protein/lb of lean body mass) is plenty for optimal total 24-hour protein synthesis and nitrogen balance. 
The key to consider in this instance is that many bodybuilders and athletes are on performance-enhancing drugs, which can in fact promote nitrogen retention and therefore more protein will be better for those individuals. However, it is imperative that people who don’t use PEDs don’t assume that they need those large amounts of protein as well, because they just won’t benefit from it the same way.
The bottom line
If you are an avid gym rat that doesn’t use anabolic steroids or other PEDs that promote nitrogen retention, there is little reason to take in 2 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight (unless you want acrid-smelling, gaseous effusions coming out your backside, AKA “protein farts”). As noted above, research suggests that a more efficient dose is around .9-1.25g per pound of lean body mass.
For individuals who are using steroids and other PEDs, more protein is in fact likely to confer added benefit, so the 2-gram per pound of lean body mass recommendation is legitimate in this case (but this isn’t to say there is no maximum).
The best way to approach your diet is to make sure you’re taking in nominal amounts of protein, along with enough carbohydrates and fats to reach your daily calorie quota.
5. The rise of IIFYM and Pop-Tarts—kiss those micronutrients goodbye
This is one of the more fun topics I like to discuss with individuals because people seem to hold steadfast to their opinion no matter how much evidence opposes their stance (and I love heated debates). If you’re not familiar with what the heck IIFYM is, it’s a way of dieting based on the idea that macronutrients and calorie intake are the primary concerns, not the actual ingredient content of foods or other factors.
Much to the chagrin of believers in “clean eating”, the IIFYM mantra has, for whatever reason, led to many gym-goers eating more Pop-Tarts (and I’m sure Kelloggs is loving this). I’ve done my fair share of writing on the dichotomy of “clean” and “dirty” foods, and from a practical point of view it is safe to say that the vast majority of foods/ingredients are fine to eat in some capacity (this is to say that few foods/ingredients are unanimously unhealthy or “dirty”).
A major oversight of many people who jump on the IIFYM bandwagon is the lack of micronutrient-dense foods and fiber in their diet. As was noted in habit #2 above, foods are much more than just their calorie and macronutrient content and to overlook the necessity of dietary fiber and micronutrients in one’s diet is not likely to be a healthy way of eating. Another oversight is people who rely heavily on simple sugar and take in large amounts of trans-fatty acids and still think they’re “hitting their macros”.
Moreover, don’t forget the fact that as people age their metabolic rate slows (and they often live a more sedentary life) thereby decreasing the room in their diet for calorie-dense foods like Pop-Tarts. Things you can “get away with” diet-wise, so to speak, when you’re a teenager will likely take a toll on you in your later years. I had a lot of friends in our adolescent years who would chug pop, eat pizza and ice cream and all that good stuff but yet they remained lean; a few of those people have maintained those dieting habits over the years and now they’re rather chubby (and only in their mid 20s).
Now, I should be clear here that IIFYM is actually about as sane of a way of eating as there is, because it’s based on simplicity, it’s rational and it’s highly practical. My main concerns with IIFYM are threefold: people forgetting the importance of micronutrients, people not eating sufficient dietary fiber, and lastly people lacking self control to enjoy just a moderate amounts of foods they enjoy and instead end up binging.
The bottom line
IIFYM is not an excuse to disregard the importance of micronutrients and fiber as well as avoiding exorbitant amounts of sugars and trans-fatty acids. If you’re a health-oriented bro looking to get those chiseled abs for the beach babes, then it’s highly unlikely that you will be meeting your macronutrient and micronutrient quotas by subsisting on Pop-Tarts and protein shakes.
That being said, macronutrients and calories are indeed the major determinants of how your body will hold weight and how you will perform, so IIFYM makes plenty of sense in that regard. Just don’t forget the importance of eating nutrient-dense foods and having some variety in your diet. There is no reason you can’t achieve your physique and performance goals while also enjoying the foods you like, just exercise moderation; a slice of pie won’t break you, but a whole pie probably will.
6. Is your metabolism stoked, bro?
The typical mantra in traditional bodybuilder culture is that you should eat every 2.5-3 hours in order to “stoke your metabolism”. However, this is neither scientifically nor anecdotally valid.
This theory that you need to eat frequent meals throughout the day seems to have sustained itself thanks to mainstream media and high-level bodybuilders purporting the benefits of constantly shoveling nutrients down one’s gullet instead of having a few further spaced apart feedings each day. Eating frequently does not “rev” the metabolism more so than eating only 2-3 times per day and here’s why:
Assuming energy/nutrient intake is equivalent between two diets, the thermic effect of food (TEF) will be identical regardless of how the nutrients are partitioned out throughout the day. As an example, let’s say you eat three meals (each containing 60g protein, 60g carbohydrate, and 20g fat) one day and six meals (each containing 30g protein, 30g carbohydrate, and 10g fat) another day. The TEF per meal will be larger on the 3-meal per day diet, but the total 24-hour TEF will still balance out since you’re eating less total meals. Another example of this--say you have an entire pizza sitting in front of you, the TEF of eating that whole pizza remains the same no matter how you choose to divvy out the slices. You could eat half the pizza at two meals or 1/8th the pizza at 8 meals, the total TEF will still balance out in the end.
The bottom line
Don’t buy into the idea that eating smaller, more frequent meals will somehow magically increase your metabolic rate more so than eating a few larger meals because that’s just not how the body reacts thermodynamically. At the end of the day, total energy intake is what will ultimately determine the TEF, not the frequency of that energy intake.
7. Eat protein every 3 hours or you shall dwindle away to nothing
One of my favorite habits to nitpick on is the gym-goers who insist on practically having a protein-infused IV drip in them at all moments of the day. These people seem to have an infatuation with protein, likely because skeletal muscle tissue is the body’s largest reservoir of amino acids. Therefore, they assume that the more frequently they hit the body with a rush of protein, the more optimally they will stimulate muscle growth.
However, this is in fact not the case as studies have shown that the body actually has a refractory period to protein intake, which blunts the protein synthetic response.  This means that eating protein too frequently would actually be an inhibitory and inefficient process if you’re looking to optimize muscle protein synthetic response to feeding.
A more pragmatic approach is to eat a nominal amount of protein, let muscle protein synthesis go through its paces and return to baseline levels, and then soon thereafter hit the body with another protein-rich meal. It’s safe to say that if you’re eating a sufficient amount of a leucine-rich, complete protein source with each meal that postprandial muscle protein synthesis will likely be elevated for at least 4-6 hours, so the idea that you need to eat protein every 3 hours (or less) is not a very sound one.
Something to keep in mind when it comes to many things in health and fitness is that more is not always better; better is better. Just because some dietary protein is indeed crucial for muscle maintenance and growth doesn’t mean you can’t overdo it.
The bottom line
Rather than frequently trickling protein/amino acids into the body throughout the day, try spacing your meals out so they occur say every 5-6 hours and take in a nominal amount of a leucine-rich, complete protein source with said meals (the actual amount will vary based on your size and needs, but for most people, 30+ grams of protein is a good starting point).
Don’t fall prey to the idea that your body is somehow “going catabolic” just because you feel hungry and have gone more than 3 hours without a meal or protein shake. You don’t have to graze on protein, and in fact it’s likely not doing you any favor if you do that. Eat a solid, balanced meal, go live life for awhile, let yourself get hungry, and then eat again; it’s not that complicated really.
8. The blander the diet, the more hardcore you are
This is one thing that I will never understand about many bodybuilders—the idea that a monotonous, bland, lame diet is somehow better for physique and performance purposes than a diet that has variety and actually has some flavor to it.
Sadly, many people hold rigidly to the “clean eating” stance and assume that clean eating entails a day full of nothing but plain chicken breast, broccoli, and brown rice. Reality check...eating plain, bland, boring, dry-as-the-desert chicken breast doesn’t make you healthier, better or more hardcore...it makes you a lazy ass for not being more creative in the kitchen.
There are a million ways to eat a healthful diet rife with nutrient-dense foods and make it taste good. There seems to be this inane idea in bodybuilding subculture that achieving the body of your dreams and performing your best means you have to sacrifice all your favorite foods and the pleasure of eating altogether. Well wake up and smell the roses because the truth is that you can have your cake and eat it too if you’re smart about it (*cough* portion control *cough*).
The bottom line
Alright Brutus Biceps, nobody cares that all you choke down is plain chicken breast, dry rice and asparagus...it’s not going to make you look or perform any better than the guy that makes his food taste good and has some variety in his diet. If you really want an award for being “more hardcore” than try to figure out how to work foods you genuinely like to eat into your diet, because that’s the mark of someone who can control themselves and has a balance in life.
If you truly believe that sacrificing taste/flavor in your diet means you are somehow more hardcore or more prone to succeed because of that, than there really is no other term to describe your train of thought than utter meatheadedness. Eating is a privilege and something that sustains us both mentally and physically, not a chore that you should abhor and think of as sacrifice.
9. Fruit is off limits
We all know that in a biblical sense, fruits (well, apples at least) are indeed forbidden, but this isn’t about Adam and Eve anymore...this is about the physiological effects of sugars (and specifically fructose). The theory that fruit is inherently bad because of its sugar content is shortsighted and likely arises from growing evidence that links added sugar intake to obesity and other health maladies. 
Most fruit has a sugar content less than 40% fructose. Fructose is primarily metabolized in the liver of humans, and the average liver stores about 50-60g of glycogen. To put it into perspective, a medium-sized apple contains about 10g of fructose. When liver glycogen is replenished, most intermediates of fructose metabolism will be directed toward de novo triglycerides (fats) synthesis in hepatocytes. Keep in mind that while excess fructose may be converted to triglycerides, this doesn’t necessarily mean that they are automatically stored as adipose tissue.
Probably the most important point to consider is that fruits are highly nutrient-dense and contain a large amount of water, thereby increasing their satiety index dramatically.  In a nutshell, the higher the satiety index of a food, the more full it makes you feel and the less likely you are to overeat on other foods.
Not unlike any other food though, fruits still have their limit and can be overeaten.
The bottom line
As was alluded to earlier, fructose is not an insulinogenic carboydrate source and doesn’t sufficiently restore muscle glycogen like other sugars do, so relying on fruit as a carbohydrate source is not ideal for most people looking to build/maintain muscle.
However, there is certainly merit to including a modest amount of fruit in one’s daily diet, mainly for their overall nutrient content and positive effects on appetite and satiety. It’s safe to say that the majority of people could stand to benefit from upwards of 5 servings of fruit per day.
Don’t skimp on the fruit, it’s not the enemy just because it contains some sugar/fructose.
10. It’s past 7PM, all carbohydrates will now turn into fat [sarcasm intended]
I love when people make presumptions about the human body from simple derivations. In this case, many bodybuilders and gym-goers alike assume the following: carbs -> insulin -> storage -> hormone -> nighttime -> sedentary -> carbs stored as adipose tissue.
Just because its 7PM and you eat some carbohydrates doesn’t mean that some whimsical, nocturnal glycolytic pathway randomly activates and tells your body to store all those carbs as adipose tissue. Your body metabolizes carbohydrates (and any other nutrient for that matter) the same way no matter what time of day it is. Granted, there are certain biorhythms in regards to hormone secretion, it’s yet to be elucidated in controlled studies that eating later at night results in worse body composition.
In fact, a one-year study of rhesus monkeys (which are genetically close to humans) showed that “…monkeys who ate most of their food at night were no more likely to gain weight than monkeys who rarely ate at night.” 
The bottom line
Don’t fear carbohydrates during the evening just because you aren’t as active or you’re about to go to sleep. As long as you’re total daily nutrient intake is within your needs, the timing of your nutrient intake is of secondary importance. Some people actually find they sleep quite a bit better when they eat carbohydrates at night because of their serotonin-releasing effect.
That being said, it is likely beneficial to have more of your carbohydrates around the training timeframe. For some people, this may in fact be late at night, and that’s ok, your body will still appreciate those carbs.
11. Soy protein doesn’t equal femininity
Another fun, myopic derivation that people make in the fitness world: soy -> estrogen -> female hormone -> bad for males.
Yes, soy (protein) does in fact increase estrogen receptor activity and suppress androgen receptor activity, but not significantly unless you’re taking in large amounts (upwards of 60g per day).  However, in more modest amounts soy protein can be a good source of isoflavones, lecithin, and other phytonutrients.
Soy protein is not as bioavailable as whey, egg and casein proteins, but it is still a complete protein source (unlike other plant proteins). For this reason it is one of the most viable protein options for individuals on vegan diets.
It is also suggested that a nominal dose of soy protein (~25g) per day may play a role in reducing risk of heart disease, reducing cholesterol levels, reducing risk of cancers, lowering blood pressure, and preventing osteoporosis. [13, 14]
The bottom line
Get over the idea that all estrogen is bad and that soy protein is the nemesis of the male gender. The FDA recommends that 20-30g of soy protein be taken in daily, and there is little evidence that that dose will cause any negative impacts hormonally.
The benefits of soy protein in moderate amounts most certainly warrant its incorporation in most any person’s diet, not just bodybuilders and gym junkies. It’s also a great addition to many recipes due to its exceptional heat stability.
12. If you weren’t so damn restrictive with your diet, you’d have nothing to “cheat” on
The concept of cheat meals (or worse yet, cheat days) has always been somewhat sad for me to think about, mainly because it just shows how poor people’s relationship with food has become. The reality is that if people understood how to practice moderation and incorporate all the foods they actually like eating (hey, sounds a lot like IIFYM), there would be no such thing as a cheat meal or cheat day.
What I would advise people, and especially bodybuilders get comfortable with is to stop looking at foods through a black-and-white lens because foods are dynamic by nature. This is to say that rather than classifying foods as unanimously “clean” or “dirty” look at them for their actual nutrition and calorie content. If you do this you’ll soon stop labeling certain foods that you truly enjoy as off limits, and learn that you don’t need to abandon your diet and binge on foods you’ve been depriving yourself of.
The more pragmatic approach to view “cheat” meals/days is to incorporate periodic “re-feed days” where you increase your calorie (and usually carbohydrate) intake in a methodical, controlled manner. It is generally best to do this during a phase where you are trying to shred fat and stall so as to help revive certain metabolic factors.
The bottom line
This sort of ties into the earlier habit of eating an extremely bland, monotonous diet and thinking your more “hardcore” because of it. It’s almost always the individuals who are so restrictive with their day-to-day diet that end of biting the bullet one day and going a Hamblurger tirade at the nearest McDonalds.
So what does this tell you? Well, for one, it means you need to cut the crap and make the food you enjoys fit into your diet. Secondly, you need to understand that a “cheat” meal or day is a lame excuse to overeat (and likely binge) on foods that really wouldn’t be off limits if you could control yourself. Lastly, realize that re-feeds are the more cerebral approach in the long run and actually have metabolic benefits for people who are having a tough time on a cutting diet.
Parting thoughts—why these habits will never be laid to rest
It doesn’t bode well for future generations that despite the inanity of some of the habits discussed herein they still pervade bodybuilding and fitness subcultures to this day. But at the end of the day, these idiosyncrasies are a natural part of the evolution of most any field.
A lot of these habits have evolved over decades and while some are not scientifically sound or practical, many people have found a way to make them work. I’d be an arrogant man to claim that pro bodybuilders can’t thrive eating loads of protein every 2-3 hours. But consider that just because those people choose to eat that way, it doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s optimal. Many people in bodybuilding and fitness subculture flourish not because what they do is the right way to go about it, but because the other things they do mask their shortcomings.
I just find it ironic that so many people in the gym just mindlessly “follow the leader” and have no clue why they actually practice their habits. If Arnold Schwarzenegger deviously told everyone that he got shredded eating nothing but cake and ice cream, I have a strong inkling that everybody would start swapping out their protein tubs for gallon pales of Ben & Jerry’s without question.
The point trying to ultimately be made is that unfounded claims and baseless habits will always exist, if not thrive, in the bodybuilding and fitness realms mainly because people that are successful (or look like they’re in great shape) practice those habits and cause all the average bros to fall in line. This is why I always tell people to approach things with a sense of curiosity and question the reasoning behind the things that they do. Take the time to educate yourself so you don’t find yourself wasting your time and effort, both in and out of, the gym.
1) Ivy J, Portman R. Nutrient timing. In: Carol Rosenberg, ed. The Future of Sports Nutrition: Nutrient Timing. CA: Basic Health Publications Inc 2007:7-14.
2) Lemon PW, Berardi JM, Noreen EE. The role of protein and amino acid supplements in the athlete’s diet: does type or timing of ingestion matter? Curr Sports Med Rep 2002;1:214-21.
3) Kromhout, Daan, et al. "Dietary saturated and trans-fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the seven countries study." Preventive medicine 24.3 (1995): 308-315.
4) Blesso, Christopher N., et al. "Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome." Metabolism 62.3 (2013): 400-410.
5) Koopman, R., Beelen, M., Stellingwerff, T., Pennings, B., Saris, W. H., Kies, A. K., ... & Van Loon, L. J. (2007). Coingestion of carbohydrate with protein does not further augment postexercise muscle protein synthesis. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism, 293(3), E833-E842.
6) Kimball, S. R., Jurasinski, C. V., Lawrence, J. C., & Jefferson, L. S. (1997). Insulin stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by enhancing the association of eIF-4E and eIF-4G. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 272(2), C754-C759
7) Tarnopolsky, M. A., et al. "Evaluation of protein requirements for trained strength athletes." Journal of Applied Physiology 73.5 (1992): 1986-1995.
8) Bolster, Douglas R., Leonard S. Jefferson, and Scot R. Kimball. "Regulation of protein synthesis associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy by insulin-, amino acid-and exercise-induced signalling." Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 63.02 (2004): 351-356.
9) Stanhope, Kimber L., Jean-Marc Schwarz, and Peter J. Havel. "Adverse metabolic effects of dietary fructose: results from the recent epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies." Current opinion in lipidology 24.3 (2013): 198-206.
10) Holt, Susanne HA, et al. "A satiety index of common foods." European journal of clinical nutrition 49.9 (1995): 675-690.
11) Oregon Health & Science University (2006, February 2). Scientists Dispel Late-Night Eating/Weight Gain Myth. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 12, 2014, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/02/060202080832.html
12) Hamilton-Reeves, J. M., Rebello, S. A., Thomas, W., Slaton, J. W., & Kurzer, M. S. (2007). Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate suppresses androgen receptor expression without altering estrogen receptor-β expression or serum hormonal profiles in men at high risk of prostate cancer. The Journal of nutrition, 137(7), 1769-1775.
13) Soybean isoflavones improve cardiovascular risk factors without affecting the reproductive system of peripubertal rhesus monkeys. J Nutr 126(1):43-50.
14) Zhou JR, Yu L, Zhong Y & Blackburn GL. 2003. Soy phytochemicals and tea bioactive components synergistically inhibit androgen-sensitive human prostate tumors in mice. J Nutr 133(2):516-521.