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Expert Guide: Branch Chain Amino Acids

BCAA Supplements Expert Guide: How to Use BCAAs For Optimal Results

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The BCAA Supplements Guide teaches you everything you need to know about BCAAs and their impact on muscle building, recovery, fat loss and performance.

This Guide Teaches You:

  • What BCAAs are, and how they impact performance and muscle building.
  • Why leucine, isoleucine, and valine are essential and must be obtained through diet.
  • How studies back the effectiveness of BCAAs upon improving performance.
  • How BCAAs positively impact testosterone levels when taken pre-workout.
  • The benefits of supplementing with BCAAs during fat loss.
  • The recommended daily BCAAs dosage.

In the quest to build muscle, bodybuilders can't seem to get enough protein. We eat copious amounts of chicken, steak, eggs, and fish to get it. We isolate the various types of proteins like whey and casein and make them into powders to take advantage of different digestion rates. We don't stop there though, we then isolate individual amino acids that protein is comprised of and consume them separately as well.

Even the most serious of lifters are left wondering why they need to take additional amino acids when they are already getting so many amino acids in all the protein they are consuming. The truth is that individual amino acids can influence muscle growth through a variety of different pathways, and of all the amino acids none have been shown to be more important than the branched chain amino acids.

Branched chain amino acid supplements (BCAAs) have been around longer than others such as creatine and beta-alanine, but few realized the full range of their capabilities regarding muscle growth and performance. Branched chain amino acids have jumped to the forefront of research in recent years and the results have been turning heads within the bodybuilding world. We now know that BCAAs go far beyond simply being building blocks for muscle tissue and can affect muscle growth through pathways few thought possible.

The Three BCAAs

The BCAAs are leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The name "branched-chain amino acids" is derived from the structure of these compounds. Each one has a forked outcropping that looks a bit like a branch, hence the name branched chain amino acids..The three BCAAs are incredibly essential and actually fall into the category of essential amino acids. Essential amino acids are amino acids that the body cannot synthesize on its own and therefore must get adequate amounts through dietary sources. In fact, even though there are about 20 amino acids that the muscles use for growth, the BCAAs comprise roughly a third of the aminos within muscle tissue. So if muscle growth is your goal BCAAs are a must.

Metabolism

It may not seem like the metabolic process of different amino acids matters as long as the end point is muscle tissue. The truth is that the manner in which amino acids are metabolized plays a large role in their functions within the body. The metabolism of BCAAs is different that the metabolic processes of other amino acids. What truly makes the BCAAs special is how they are metabolized. While most amino acids are metabolized in the liver BCAAs are metabolized primarily by muscle. Despite their structural similarities the three branched chain amino acids have different metabolic routes. The breakdown of leucine is accomplished solely through fat pathways.  Valine is broken down solely through carbohydrate pathways, and isoleucine through both. The different metabolic pathways of these three amino acids lead to varying requirements for each.

BCAAs, unlike most other amino acids, are metabolized in within muscle tissue, allowing them to be oxidized (used as energy) by muscle cells to produce cellular energy in the form of ATP. ATP is the primary source of energy that fuels muscle contraction and allows you to lift weights.

The fact that leucine, isoleucine, and valine are metabolized within muscle tissue allows them to be a quick energy source when the body needs it. There is a significant increase in BCAA metabolism during prolonged exercise simply because the body requires more energy during periods of stress such as training. This makes BCAAs incredibly effective when taken around workout time.

The unique metabolic processes, requirements, and versatility of BCAAs allow them to impact nearly every aspect of training.

BCAAs And Performance

Improving performance during training is of utmost importance no matter what your goals. If you are an athlete, improved performance will help you in your sport of choice during actual competition. Improved performance is just as important to bodybuilders since improved performance translates into more weight lifted for more reps, which eventually translates into more muscle growth.

BCAAs have been proven in many studies to be a potent performance enhancer, and as previously mentioned, BCAAs make a great energy source for working muscles because of their unique metabolism. This can have a positive impact on performance. Not only can BCAAs be used as energy themselves but they also enhance fat oxidation in glycogen depleted subjects. This allows individuals to train harder for longer without fatigue due to the higher energy demands being met. This goes for both high intensity training as well as endurance training.

Another way that BCAAs can enhance performance is through their ability to spare glycogen during training. Found as stored carbohydrates within muscle tissue and the liver, glycogen is the favored fuel source for working muscles engaged in high intensity exercise. This makes glycogen availability and preservation vitally important if you wish to continue to train hard for longer periods of time. Studies have shown that by ingesting BCAAs before and during training glycogen levels can be spared by 25%. It is thought that the ingestion of BCAAs boosts blood alanine levels which gets converted to glucose in the liver and then sent back to working muscle to be used as fuel. This glycogen sparing effect of BCAAs will not only allow for longer more intense training sessions but also allows for faster recovery leading to a better workout tomorrow.

Effects On Hormones

They are the primary determinant for how much muscle someone will build. They are what separate top level bodybuilders from the rest, elite athletes from everyone else, and cause the muscular differences between men and women. They are hormones! The hormones that are of most importance to us as serious lifters are anabolic hormones. Anabolic hormones are hormones within the body that promote protein synthesis (muscle growth), and the most notable anabolic hormones are testosterone, insulin, and growth hormone (GH). These hormones play a large role in controlling your muscle building destiny. Luckily it has been shown that BCAA intake can have a positive effect on anabolic hormone release.

Testosterone may be the most well know of the anabolic hormones. BCAAs can have a positive impact on testosterone levels when consumed pre-training. During intense training it is normal for testosterone levels to rise. After training is ceased testosterone levels will begin to fall back to normal baseline levels. Studies have shown that when athletes were given BCAAs prior to training, post-workout testosterone levels remained elevated for several hours, whereas the control groups noticed a significant drop in testosterone once training ceased. This can go a long way to maximizing growth from every single training session.

Ingestion of BCAAs not only increases testosterone in the post-training period but also builds muscle by improving the body’s testosterone to cortisol ratio. While testosterone is an anabolic hormone and promotes muscle growth, cortisol is a catabolic hormone and breaks down muscle tissue. Anyone looking to build muscle will want testosterone levels to remain high while minimizing the release of cortisol. It has recently been found that taking BCAAs while resistance training results in significantly higher testosterone levels with a lower creatine kinase and cortisol response. This leads to more muscle tissue being built and less muscle tissue being broken down.

Lastly, the amino acid leucine has also shown promise for increasing insulin sensitivity. Essentially, insulin sensitivity ensures that the insulin within your body maintains its effectiveness. This leads to easier fat loss, more muscle growth, and defense against diabetes.

As a natural lifters it is important to take advantage of every opportunity we get to optimize anabolic hormone levels. BCAAs are a safe and effective way to naturally manipulate hormone levels leading to greater results all around.

BCAAs And Fat Loss

The effects of BCAA intake on fat loss is something that has only been explored in more recent years. Newer research is showing that BCAAs can have a positive effect on fat loss. This doesn’t mean you can eat pizza at every meal with a side of BCAAs and the fat will just melt away though. BCAAs seem to maximize fat loss when one is already on a fat loss diet. On any fat loss diet, carbohydrates will need to be lowered to some degree. It seems that BCAAs ability to spare glycogen and increase insulin sensitivity may play a role in speeding up the results of a fat loss plan.

BCAAs should also be used as a supplement during any fat loss plan because of the muscle preserving effects. On any calorie restricted plan muscle tissue loss is a serious concern that must be addressed. All of the positive effects that BCAAs have on muscle growth will also serve to protect muscle during periods of calorie restriction. It is always important to remember that anything which builds muscle will also preserve muscle.

BCAAs As Signaling Molecules

Last, but most certainly not least, of BCAAs many functions is their ability to act as signaling molecules within the body. This has been bringing about some of the most exciting new research within the bodybuilding community in recent years. To get an understanding of how important this is you must first understand the role of protein within the body.

It has long been known that amino acids act as substrate for muscle tissue. This essentially means that when you consume protein, your body will take the amino acids from that protein to compose muscle tissue and other proteins. This is why people often refer to amino acids as building blocks. BCAAs have been proven to be much more than simple building blocks though. Within recent years it has been discovered that BCAAs, particularly leucine, act to send signals to the body that inform it to build muscle.

One of the ways leucine works to signal muscle growth is through it’s interaction with mTOR which stands for mammalian target of rapamycin. The mTOR is located within the cells and, among other things, is responsible for detecting an excess of amino acids. It has been shown to play a key role in regulating muscle hypertrophy (growth). Though this process is not entirely understood, the mTOR pathway has been discovered to be extremely sensitive to the amino acid leucine. Recent tests have shown that when leucine is taken orally it activates mTOR, which activates protein synthesis (muscle growth), and increases a cell’s capacity to produce new proteins (muscle tissue). This means that along with resistance training there is a way to send messages that control growth right at the cellular level. This is truly exciting news.

Many people will ask “If leucine has the greatest effect on muscle growth, then why not take take leucine alone without isoleucine and valine?” It has consistently been shown that the greatest results in protein synthesis are seen when a 2:1:1 ratio of leucine, isoleucine, and valine are taken. When leucine is taken alone it can lower concentrations of the other two amino acids.

It is also important to note, although BCAAs can act to signal muscle growth, there must be a full spectrum of amino acids to act as substrate for muscle growth. This means that you can send signals to your body to build muscle all you want, but if it has nothing to build with you are out of luck. So make sure you ingest enough whole protein every day.

Recommended Dosage

The most important times to ingest BCAA’s are times are before, during, and after training. Here are effective dosages for intake around training.

Bodyweight and BCAA Intake

  • 150 lbs. or less - 3 grams before, during, and after training.
  • 151 lbs. or more - 5 grams before, during, and after training.

Although before, during and after training is the most important time to take in BCAA’s there are other times of the day that they are of use. For extra benefit BCAA’s can be taken throughout the day in addition to the BCAA’s taken around training time. This will further increase protein synthesis and reduce muscle tissue breakdown.

Bodyweight and BCAA Intake

  • 150 lbs. or less - 10 grams before, during, and after training.
  • 151 lbs. or more - 15 grams before, during, and after training.

This dosage should be split up throughout the day and taken at breakfast, between meals, and before bed.

Conclusion

New and exciting research is still being conducted on BCAAs and their applications to muscle growth, fat loss, and performance. There are not many supplements in existence that have the ability to affect growth and performance through as many different pathways as BCAAs. While BCAAs have proven benefits as a building block of muscle tissue, their benefits as signaling molecules are truly just being understood. In time BCAAs may just prove to be the most valuable supplement at our disposal. So the next time someone accuses you of being just another meathead talking about protein all the time, you can show them that it is more than just eating plates of chicken and beef…it’s science!

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Comments (194)

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Duncan
Posted Tue, 03/20/2012 - 22:21

I'm currently learning about supplements for the first time. Does BCAA supplementation need to be cycled like creatine?

Thanks

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Steve's picture
Steve
Posted Wed, 03/21/2012 - 09:11

No, not at all. BCAAs do not need to be cycled.

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Barry
Posted Sun, 04/15/2012 - 11:58

Just started training and am taking Tribulus 1200 and Monster 100, which Creatine should I take Steve?

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David
Posted Sat, 01/19/2013 - 02:53

Just so you know, Tribulus primarily boosts your LH levels, which primarily boosts your libido,( sex drive ) and has very little to do with building a better body! Its only a small part of testosterone's chemical make up, and probably the most useless for body building. Creatine is an ok supplement, but will only increase energy in the muscle and bring more water into the muscle making it appear fuller, and harder. It is also very hard on the kidney's. But if you want a really good pump, try "Superpump 250" by Gaspari nutrition. that has the best creatine combination on the market that I have used. From first work out you will notice a huge difference. Hope this helps. D

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steve bigman
Posted Mon, 03/24/2014 - 14:44

your an idiot what study showed you creatine is hard on your kidneys

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Steve Biggerman
Posted Fri, 05/02/2014 - 16:11

Well, genius, spelling you're as "your" and missing all capitalization and punctuation in your comment kind of makes YOU the idiot, don't you think?

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bigger then both
Posted Tue, 08/19/2014 - 12:39

You did not even answer the above question, you are more concerned about giving ESL lessons. IDIOT

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casey pow
Posted Mon, 09/30/2013 - 18:03

hey man I'm trying to use this article as a source for a research paper if you could email me or give me your email so I can get your credentials for my works cited page that'd be great.

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Am J
Posted Tue, 10/15/2013 - 00:10

Hi Steve, Can u plz help me out.
I started Ripping Cycle for compition, its in December. Wat should I take in supplements or in diet

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David
Posted Thu, 01/17/2013 - 02:25

BCAA are an essential part of your daily diet and your muscles need them to grow and recover from training. Therefore, whether you train or not BCAAs should be consumed as part of your regular diet in order to maintain lean muscle, and keep your metabolic rate where it should be. The more muscle you have the higher your metabolic rate. One other important side note, your body can not produce BCAAs so we must consume either through supplementation, or whole foods in proper amounts in order to maintain lean muscle. Creatine is produced in the body with three precursor amino's, Methionine, Arginine, and Glycine. Creatine is primarily found in red meats, but supplementation is suggested to get a better outcome. But keep in mind, that Creatine plays a different role in training. It is stored in the muscle as energy, and if you are taking it in powder form it should be taken with a beverage that is high in sugar content in order to get to the muscle more effectively unless it is purchased with the sugar and flavoring already added. Also, over use of creatine is extremely hard on the Kidneys, and Thats why you need to cycle on and off. Do not over use. Hope this helps. Good luck, D

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Mike pierron
Posted Tue, 05/14/2013 - 13:30

Simply stated, no.

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sam
Posted Mon, 04/07/2014 - 08:06

yes, take a month break after 1 month of consumption.

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sachin
Posted Wed, 03/21/2012 - 13:42

Hi. I like this article its really helpful..my goal is to build muscles, so is there any side effect of BCAA..my body weight is 68 kg n also someone told me to get a stack of Whey, Creatine, BCAA, Waxy Maize n Glutamine befor,during n after ur workout..bt my workout time is morning so shud I have this stack on empty stomach..or shud I eat something..plzz reply

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Steve's picture
Steve
Posted Tue, 03/27/2012 - 14:56

BCAAs are a natural supplement and without side effects.

Lifting first thing in the morning I recommend either BCAAs before and during a workout, or sipping on a semi-diluted protein shake during your workout.

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John Paul
Posted Sat, 06/21/2014 - 04:39

Hi Steve,

Im reading quite a bit on BCAA. Which products do you reccomend i have, im on a weight loss program but also weight training very hard.

Thanks

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David
Posted Sat, 01/19/2013 - 02:23

First of all, Creatine should not be consumed with regular proteins as the proteins will hinder the assimilation of creatine. Creatine should be used before a work out because that is what it is intended for. Stored energy in the muscle! A post work out protein within 40 minutes is the ideal time for a shake of up to 50 grams. Replenishment every 3 hours is recommended for optimal muscle hypertrophy. Amino acids only stay in the blood stream for 3 hours and then they are gone. Then you body will start to feed off of itself using muscle for energy. complex carbohydrates are also very important to any work out regimen. hope this helps. D

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Joe
Posted Sun, 04/01/2012 - 18:39

Great info! I'm a bit confused about the recommended dosing, though. For before/during/after training, do you mean take the 5g over that entire process, for a total of 5g? Or is it 5g before, 5g during, and 5g after, for a total of 15g?

Also during the remainder of the day, is it 15g total, or 15g each dose at breakfast, between meals, and before bed, for a total of 60g?

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Steve
Posted Wed, 04/04/2012 - 13:19

The dosage is for each period, so 15g total. The other 15 grams should be split up between breakfast, between meals, and before bed.

Total of 30 grams.

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Thomas
Posted Mon, 04/02/2012 - 16:48

The recommended amounts to take is confusing. If you are over 150 pounds, do you take the 5 grams pre, during, and post workout making it 15 grams, or just 5 grams split before, during, and after workout?

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Steve
Posted Wed, 04/04/2012 - 13:19

The dosage is for each period, so 15g total.

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majavojnovic
Posted Sat, 04/07/2012 - 17:45

Actually learned a lot from this! Interesting info about the testosterone levels, I was unaware of that.
Thanks

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Gaz78
Posted Thu, 04/26/2012 - 18:20

Great article, learnt a lot. Can you recommend any certain brand of BCAA's?

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Steve's picture
Steve
Posted Mon, 04/30/2012 - 13:41

Muscle & Strength Hydramino & Scivation Xtend are the most popular choices:

http://www.muscleandstrength.com/store/hydramino.html

http://www.muscleandstrength.com/store/scivation-xtend.html

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Timmy
Posted Wed, 06/05/2013 - 09:42

Hi which one would be best for leg muscle and hydration as im gonna be running as for arm muscle I can't lift a bar bell with 10kg weights on I looked at creative but I'm thinking can I get bcaa and creatine in a shake like these whith a body weight guide line and when to take it on a tub also cycle guide as I was gonna take it daily now I have read not to ? I suppose that means rest days as I know when you take this stuff you should train on it not just sit about but I thought that was long term ?

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adrian
Posted Wed, 05/30/2012 - 03:10

What a great article. Very helpful.
There is a lot of controversy online about what bcaas at made/derived from, would you be able to shed some light on the matter please? I only ask because I have allergies to some things.
Thanks Steve

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Steve
Posted Fri, 06/08/2012 - 13:11

BCAAs are nothing more than essential amino acids required by the body. The human body can't manufacture BCAAs by itself, so intake must be achieved via food or food supplements.

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Boxer
Posted Fri, 06/08/2012 - 00:18

Sir this is a wonderful piece of information.
But please guide me max dosage of bcaa and correct timing
I m 120 kgs nd on a weightloss prg. Hiit cardio inearly morning and weight training in evening i do.
also can itake tribulus

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Joseph
Posted Wed, 06/13/2012 - 15:27

I have never used BCAA's before and will be getting it in tomorrow. I have read that I should start slow with only a few grams. Now is this true or can i gun ho on the recommended dose on the tub? I am getting Xtend btw :)

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Julia
Posted Thu, 06/14/2012 - 06:18

Are there specific protein supplements for women? If I (18 year old female) started taking the supplements while exercising daily and eating wisely, would it affect me differently to people who build muscle mass rather than strength?

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David
Posted Thu, 01/17/2013 - 02:33

Not all proteins are created equal! Proteins are comprised of amino acids, therefore, you should use proteins that have as many of the existing amino's available. Such as meats, Egg's are a great source of amino's. Plant proteins such as Soy beans, or soy milk are very incomplete sources of protein, but do provide other benefits for women, such as Phyto estrogens, or "Plant Estrogens" which help balance hormones. Thats why it is alway good to supplement when possible. Whey protein is a great source of Aminos as well and tastes great and very affordable. Hope this helps. D

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Lee
Posted Fri, 01/18/2013 - 16:12

Please be careful about soy. The estrogen in soy is very counteractive to muscle building and has been linked to many cancers. Someone that is trying to build muscle should avoid soy at all costs. It's the equivalent of ingesting up to 5 birth control pills a day. The phytoestrogens mimic estrogen in our bodies and the research out there about it being good for us is funding by none other than the soy industry.
It is also known to be gointrogenic which means is messes with our thyroid. The phytates also found in soy are so high that they cannot be rid of the bodily easily and destroys our ability to absorb minerals. We know we needs those minerals for growth and proper body functions.

The last thing soy has that is tough on your body is trypsin inhibitors. Without trypsin, the body is unable to digest foods properly and causes diarrhea, cramps, indigestion and even bleeding.
Please be careful out there with Soy.. It's not what we really think it is.

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David
Posted Sat, 01/19/2013 - 02:35

I have no idea where your getting your info about soy protein for women, people in Asia have been using soy based products for centuries and have found countless benefits for women. Though I don't recommend the use of soy for men and body building, Soy protein does have a host of benefits for women. Using big (mispelled) or inappropriate words does not make it any more believable. However it does sound like mumbo jumbo! There are a host of problems people can have in consuming any number of supplements if they have pre-existing medical conditions, that does not preclude everyone from using them. However, men using soy based proteins should be careful, as the phyto estrogens can and usually will cause man boobs, technical term Gynecomastia, which is breast matter which can only be corrected through surgery. So women, green light on soy proteins, men, a no no! Hope this helps. D

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englishbob
Posted Wed, 03/13/2013 - 10:17

With respect, your response to Lee makes you sound very ignorant. Lee's "big words" are appropriate. Your comments about Asia are not factual. What is a fact, and I suggest you research it carefully before giving anyone "advice", is that soy will have severe negative impacts on a woman's thyroid and reproductive system.

Soy, in a word, is "toxic" to humans. Stay far a way from anyone who suggests you ingest this substance.

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dickizinya
Posted Wed, 03/20/2013 - 20:46

Your overuse of quotations is very ignorant.

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rick
Posted Wed, 07/03/2013 - 01:22

steve did not use any words that were big or misspelled. All is correct.

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Jess
Posted Sun, 03/17/2013 - 04:13

Actually, Soy is very good for you as long as you don't go overboard. 1-3 servings a day have health benefits.
What Lee is talking about is if you have about 14 servings a day!

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Lukasz J. Trzebinski
Posted Fri, 06/15/2012 - 10:18

I do my weights lifting workout in the morning. I usually drink Whey protein supplement before a workout, and then another one plus breakfast after workout, if I would to use BCaas how should I modify this to get the best results? Thanks.
BTW I am over 200lb

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shiv
Posted Mon, 06/18/2012 - 06:16

hi,
I am shivaram i bought Platinum hydro whey ,Amino by bsn, gluta lean by labrada.
I am planning on weight loss and shaping my body in to a perfect figure.
I am 28 , 5.11 and weigh 95kg.
Kindly advice me with the intakes of these products or do i have to buy more and what should be my diet like.

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Jenny
Posted Fri, 07/27/2012 - 17:42

Hello, I've been training for 3 months but I never have drink any pre-workout or post-workout supplement.. I'm 5'4" my weigh 150 lbs .. before my pregnancy I was 125 lbs.. I do 3 day of legs workout and between them upper body workout .. I do cardio 15 min per 5 days.. I just want to get back to my old weight but with muscle.. My baby is 3 years old I'm not breastfeeding. what should I drink? thanks :D

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Chaz
Posted Fri, 08/10/2012 - 02:26

I'm a little concerned about what effects testosterone may have on my body at increased levels... (I'm female)

What combination and dosage of supplements would you recommend for someone who really needs to gain muscle? I'm 140lbs and 5'11".

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Joey
Posted Wed, 08/22/2012 - 12:44

No need to worry about increased testosterone resulting in a "manly" look. Your body simply won't produce enough testosterone on its own to get "huge". A quality whey protein and BCAAs will help a lot in adding muscle. Supplements are useful but 90% of your results will be up to your diet.

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David
Posted Sat, 01/19/2013 - 02:45

The number your looking for is 70% not 90%, though I do agree that diet is the primary source of your success, 90% is way too high! you must also train hard, combining resistance training, with cardiovascular aerobic training, and micro supplementation. There are also other variables as well but thats for another time. and yes, women in most cases do not produce enough testosterone to get huge without juicing, but then again neither can most men! You don't honestly believe body builders can get their freakishly large bodys without ramming a needle in there butts at least a couple times a week? But women genetically can not produce that much testosterone! Hope this helps. D

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niksa
Posted Sun, 05/12/2013 - 13:36

who is the negative effect for bcaa?

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ragy azer
Posted Wed, 08/15/2012 - 13:08

Hey, first of all i don't know if that is the right page to post my question, if its not so I really do apologize.
My question is i take C4 as a pre-workout and i drink BCAA throw my workout but in the same time i dont feel that im getting enough amount of pure water while I'm training cuz my water is mixed with BCAA.
What is the best way you advice me taking those supplements to get the max benefit?
Thank you.

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Joey
Posted Wed, 08/22/2012 - 12:47

Drink a TON of water throughout the day. Adding BCCAAs to your water is a great way to add flavor and get the extra benefit. Drink half of the BCAAs during your workout and then top the bottle of with water and finish it by the end of your workout. This will help.

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kranthi
Posted Fri, 08/24/2012 - 02:02

hi......am dng powerlifting which type of creatine i should use

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Joey
Posted Fri, 08/24/2012 - 12:10

Hi Kranthi,

You should do well with any reputable brand of creatine. Personally, I use a creatine monohydrate.

Check out all the different creatines we offer here: http://www.muscleandstrength.com/store/category/creatine.html

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Hugo Queiroz
Posted Thu, 09/20/2012 - 13:52

My weight it's 156lbs, so, I should take 15grams right before training, 15grams during the traning and 15grams right after the training? How many minutes I should wait during the training to take it? I don't understand.

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Blake
Posted Thu, 09/20/2012 - 14:25

I just have one doubt: for how long I can take BCAA? A month? A month and a half?
I also have another doubt: for how long I can take Whey Protein and Creatine? A month? A month and a half max?

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Joey
Posted Fri, 09/21/2012 - 09:57

Hey Blake,

None of the supplements you mentioned would need to be "cycled off". You can take them continuously for as long as you need.

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