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Muscle & Strength Bodybuilding Glossary

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The most comprehensive bodybuilding glossary on the web. Includes a huge list of bodybuilding acronyms. This page is always growing so check back!

Have you ever been reading a bodybuilding magazine or article and come across a term you have never heard of!? We've all been there. The M&S bodybuilding glossary, supplement glossary and acronym list explains what these terms mean.

Have you heard a term that doesn't appear on this list, or have we missed something? Please leave the term and meaning in the comments at the bottom of this page and we'll add it to the glossary!

A big thanks to the Muscle & Strength Forum moderators and members for putting this glossary together!

Bodybuilding Glossary

A

Abduction - Movement of a limb away from middle of body, such as bringing arm to shoulder height from hanging-down position.

Adduction - Movement of a limb toward middle of body, such as bringing arm to side from extended position at shoulder.

Amino acids - A group of compounds that serve as the building blocks from which protein and muscle are made.

Anabolic Drugs - Also called anabolic steroids, these are artificial male hormones that aid in nitrogen retention and thereby add to a male bodybuilder's muscle mass and strength. These drugs are not without hazardous side effects, however, and they are legally available only through a physician's prescription.

Antioxidant - Small compounds that minimize tissue oxidation and help control free radicals and their negative effects.

Arm Blaster - Aluminum strip about 5x24 inches, supported at waist height by a strap around neck. Keeps elbows from moving while curling barbell or doing triceps pushdowns.

Atrophy - Decrease in size and functional ability of tissue or organs. Atrophy is basically "muscle loss" through incorrect nutrition and overtraining.

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B

Baby's Butt - Indentation between the two heads of biceps muscles of very muscular man.

Back-Cycling - Dropping back the amount of weight used, number of reps or number of sets in your workout.

Bar - The steel shaft that forms the basic part of a barbell, dumbbell or cable attachment. These bars are normally about one inch thick, and they are often encased in a revolving standard size metal sleeve that holds the weight.

Barbell - Weight used for exercises, consisting of a rigid handle with detachable (or fixed) metal discs at each end.

Basic Exercise - A muscle building exercise which targets the largest muscle groups of your body (eg: upper legs, back, and/or chest) and often smaller muscles in the same movement. Basic exercises are the best for building muscle mass. Typical basic movements include squats, bench presses, rows and deadlifts.

Bench - A fixed or adjustable padded bench that you can use for doing various exercises like dumbell bench press, shoulder press and arm exercises. Some benches are flat and adjustable in height, other can incline to 10-90 degrees.

Biomechanics - The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on a human body and the effects produced by these forces.

Body Composition - The percentage of your body weight composed of fat compared to fat-free mass.

Buff - Being muscular to the highest level.

Bulking Up - Gaining bodyweight by growing muscle, body fat or both muscle and fat.

Burn or "The Burn" - A beneficial burning sensation in a muscle that you are training. This burn is caused by a rapid buildup of fatigue toxins in the muscle and is a good indication that you are optimally working a muscle group. The best bodybuilders consistently forge past the pain barrier erected by muscle burn and consequently build very massive, highly defined muscles.

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C

Calisthenics - Simple exercises performed without equipment, using only the body for resistance, like jumping jacks, lunges, push-ups, dips.

Calories - The unit for measuring energy value. This can be the amount of energy you burn or the amount of energy contained in foods.

Carbohydrates - Organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They're a very effective fuel source for the body. The are 2 main types of carbs. Simple carbs are found in sugars and complex carbs are found in wheat, rice, bread, potatoes etc. You need to each complex carbs for long lasting energy.

Chalk - The powder used on hands for a secure grip.

Cheating (cheat reps) - A method of pushing a muscle to keep working far past the point at which it would normally fail to continue contracting due to excessive fatigue buildup. In cheating you will use a self-administered body swing, jerk, or otherwise poor exercise form once you have reached the failure point to take some of the pressure off the muscles and allow them to continue a set for two or three repetitions past failure.

Chinup Bar - A bar attached high on the wall or gym ceiling, on which you can do chins, pull ups, hanging leg raises, and other movements for your upper body.

Cholesterol - A type of fat that, although most widely known as a "bad fat" implicated in promoting heart disease and stroke, is a vital component in the production of many hormones in the body.

Circuit Training - Going quickly from one exercise apparatus to another and doing a prescribed number of exercises on each apparatus, to keep pulse rate high and promote overall fitness.

Collar - The clamp that is used to hold plates securely in place on a barbell or dumbell bar. The cylindrical metal clamps are held in place on the bar by means of a set screw threaded through the collar and tightened securely against the bar. Inside collars keep plates from sliding inward and injuring your hands, while outside collars keep plates from sliding off the barbell in the middle of an exercise.

Compound Exercise - An exercise that requires you to move at two joints or more. Examples of compound exercises are squat, bench press, pull up and dip.

Compound Training - Sometimes called "giant sets", doing 34 exercises for same muscle, one after other, with minimal rest in between.

Concentric - The lifting phase of an exercise, when the muscle shortens or contracts. For example in a bicep curl when you pull the weight up you're in the "positive" or concentric part of the movement.

Cooche Lift - Lifting like a sissygirl

Crunches - An exercise for the abdominal muscles. The exercise is done on the floor with legs on bench, hands behind neck. Also known as situps.

Curl Bar - Cambered bar designed for more comfortable grip and less forearm strain.

Cycle - Refers to deliberate variation in the intensity and volume of workouts, or to variation of dosages of steroids or other growth-enhancing drugs.

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D

Dead Lift - A muscle building exercise and one of three powerlifting events (other two are squat and bench press). Weight is lifted off floor to approximately waist height. Lifter must stand erect, shoulders back.

Deficiency - A less than optimum level of nutrients for your bodys requirements. Most commonly seen in vitamins. Your body may become deficient when you are training hard and not eating a healthy diet.

Definition - The absence of fat over clearly delineated muscular movement. Definition is often referred to as "muscularity," and a highly defined bodybuilder has so little body fat that very fine grooves of muscularity called "striations" will be clearly visible over each major muscle group.

Delts - Abbreviation for Deltiods. Deltoids are the shoulder muscles. The body has front, middle and rear deltiods.

Density - Muscle hardness, which is also related to muscular definition. A bodybuilder can be well-defined and still have excess fat within each major muscle complex. But when he has muscle density, even this intramuscular fat has been eliminated. A combination of muscle mass and muscle density is highly prized among all competitive bodybuilders.

Dip Belt - A large heavy belt that a lifter can wear around the waist and attach additional weights to increase the intensity of the dip exercise.

Dipping Bars - Parallel bars set high enough above the floor to allow you to do dips between them, leg raises for your abdominals, and a variety of other exercises.

Drop Set - An advanced training technique where the trainee completes one set, immediately followed by another set with slightly lighter weights and the followed by a third set with llighter weights again. Drop sets are often used with dumbbells or machines. Barbell drop sets are often referred to as "stripping" because you take the plates off the bar instead of using lighter dumbbells. It's important that you have no rest between sets, not even 5 seconds!

Dumbbell - Weight used for exercising consisting of rigid handle about 14" long with sometimes detachable metal discs at each end.

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E

Easy Set - A set performed without using maximum effort. Like a warm up set.

Eccentric - The lowering phase of an exercise, when the muscle lengthens. For example, lowering the weight to your chest during the bench press is the eccentric, or "negative" part of the exercise.

Endurance - Ability of a muscle to produce force continually over a period of time. The greater your endurance the longer you can perform the exercise.

Energy - Measure in Calories or KJ energy is the capacity to do work. Energy harnessed is power.

Essential fatty acids (EFAs) - Fats our bodies can't make, so we must obtain them through our diets. These fats (which include linoleic and linolenic acid) are very important to hormone production, as well as cellular synthesis and integrity. Good sources of these fats arc flaxseed oil and safflower oil.

Exercise - An exercises is each individual movement. For example bench press and squat are both different exercises.

Extension - When you extend a body part from a bent position to a straight position. For example tricep extension (bending at the elbow) and leg extension (bending at the knee).

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F

Failure - That point in an exercise at which you have so fully fatigued your working muscles that they can no longer complete an additional repetition of a movement with strict biomechanics. You should always take your post-warm-up sets at least to the point of momentary muscular failure, and frequently past that point.

Fast Twitch Muscles - Refers to muscle cells that fire quickly and are utilized in anaerobic activities like sprinting and powerlifting.

Fat - One of the macronutrients. Fat contains nine calories per gram; it has the most calories of MI the macronutrients. There are two types of fat-saturated "bad" fat and unsaturated "good" fat.

Fat Free Mass (FFM) - Any part of the human body that does not contain any fat. For example bones, hair, muscles skin etc.

Flex - Bend or decrease angle of a joint; contract a muscle.

Flexibility - A suppleness of joints, muscle masses, and connective tissues which lets you move your limbs over an exaggerated range of motion, a valuable quality in body-building training, since it promotes optimum physical development. Flexibility can only be attained through systematic stretching training.

Flush - Cleanse a muscle by increasing the blood supply to it, removing toxins left in muscle by exertion.

Forced Reps - Forced reps are a frequently used method of extending a set past the point of failure to induce greater gains in muscle mass and quality. With forced reps, a training partner pulls upward on the bar just enough for you to grind out two or three reps past the failure threshold.

Form - This is simply another word to indicate the mechanics used during the performance of any muscle building or weight training movement. Perfect form involves moving only the muscles specitied in an exercise description.

Free Weights - Barbells, dumbbells, and related equipment. Serious bodybuilders use a combination of free weights and such exercise machines as those manufactured by Nautilus and Universal Gyms, but they primarily use free weights in their workouts.

Frequent Feeding - Eating often throughout the day to work with your body, not against it. fly eating at regular intervals throughout the day (approximately every two to three hours), you can keep your metabolism elevated and energy levels stable.

Fructose - The main type of sugar found in fruit. It's sweeter than sucrose (table sugar).

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G

Giant Sets - Series of 4-6 exercises done with little or no rest between movements and a rest interval of 3-4 minutes between giant sets. You can perform giant sets for either two antagonistic muscle groups or a single body part.

Glucose - The simplest sugar molecule. It's also the main sugar found in blood and is used as a basic fuel for the body.

Glycogen - The principal stored form of carbohydrate energy (glucose), which is reserved in muscles. When your muscles are full of glycogen, they look and feel full.

Gorging - This refers to eating large amounts of food at one meal, then waiting for many hours, maybe a full day, before eating again.

Grazing - This term refers to frequent feedings - eating small amounts of food often.

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H

Hard Set - Perform a prescribed number of repetitions of an exercise using maximum effort.

Hypertrophy - The scientific term denoting an increase in muscle mass and an improvement in relative muscular strength. Hypertrophy is induced by placing an "overload" on the working muscles with various training techniques during a muscle building workout.

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I

IFBB - International Federation of Bodybuilders, founded in 1946 - group that over-sees worldwide men's and women's amateur and professional bodybuilding.

Intensity - The relative degree of effort that you put into each set of every exercise in a bodybuilding workout. The more intensity you place on a working muscle, the more quickly it will increase in hypertrophy. The most basic methods of increasing intensity are to use heavier weights in good form in each exercise, do more reps with a set weight, or perform a consistent number of sets and reps with a particular weight in a movement, but progressively reducing the length of rest intervals between sets.

Isolation Exercise - In contrast to a basic exercise, an isolation movement stresses a single muscle group (or sometimes just part of a single muscle) in relative isolation from the remainder of the body. In all isolation exercises only 1 joint movement is required. Examples are bicep curl, leg extension and tricep extension.

Isometric Exercise - Muscular contraction where muscle maintains a constant length and joints do not move. These exercises are usually performed against a wall or other immovable object.

Isotonic Exercise - Muscular action in which there is a change in length of muscle and weight) keeping tension constant. Lifting free weights is a classic isotonic exercise.

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J

Juice - A slang term for anabolic steroids, e.g., being "on the juice."

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K

Knee Wraps - Elastic strips about 3-5 inches wide used to wrap knees for better support when performing squats, dead lifts, etc.

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L

Lats - Abbreviation for latissimus dorsi, the large muscles of the back that move the arms downward, backward and in internal rotation.

Layoff - Most intelligent bodybuilders take a one or two week layoff from bodybuilding training from time to time, during which they totally avoid the gym.

Lean Body Mass - Everything in the body except fat, including bone, organs, skin, nails and all body tissue including muscle. Approximately 50-60% of lean body mass is water.

Lift Off - Assistance in getting weight to proper starting position.

Ligament - Strong, fibrous band of connecting tissue connecting 2 or more bones or cartilages or supporting a muscle, fascia or organ.

Linoleic Acid - An essential fatty acid and, more specifically, an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. Good sources of this fatty acid are safflower oil and soybean oil.

Linolenic Acid - An essential fatty acid and, more precise an omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid. It is found in high concentrations in flaxseed oil.

Lock Out - Partial repetition of an exercise by pushing the weight through only last few inches of movement.

Lower Abs - Abbreviation for abdominal muscles below the navel.

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M

Mass - The relative size of each muscle group, or of the entire physique. As long as you also have a high degree of muscularity and good balance of physical proportions, muscle mass is a highly prized quality among competitive bodybuilders.

Max - Maximum effort for one repetition of an exercise.

Meal - Food that's eaten at one time. Each meal should contain a portion (which is the size of the palm of your hand or your clenched fist) of protein and a portion of carbohydrates.

Metabolic Rate - The rate you convert energy stores into working energy in your body. In other words, it's how Fast your "whole system" runs. The meta-bolic rate is controlled by a number of factors, including: muscle mass (the greater your muscle mass, the greater your metabolic rate), calorie intake, and exercise.

Metabolism - The use of nutrients by the body. It's the process by which sub-stances come into the body and the rate at which they are used.

Mid Section - Muscles of abdominal area, including upper and lower abdominals, obliques and rectus abdominis muscles.

Military Press - Pressing a barbell from upper chest upward in standing or sitting position.

Minerals - Naturally occurring, inorganic substances that are essential for human life, which play a role in many vital metabolic processes.

Muscle - Tissue consisting of fibers organized into bands or bundles that contract to cause bodily movement. Muscle fibers run in the same direction as the action they perform.

Muscle Head - Slang for someone whose life is dominated by muscle building training.

Muscle Spazm - Sudden, involuntary contraction of muscle or muscle group.

Muscle Tone - Condition in which a muscle is in a Constant yet slight state of contraction and appears firm.

Myositis - Muscular soreness due to inflammation that often Occurs 1-2 days after unaccustomed exercise.

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N

Negative Reps - One or two partners help you lift a weight up to 50% heavier than you would normally lift to finish point of movement. Then you slowly lower weight on your own.

Non Locks - Performing an exercise without going through complete range of motion. For example, doing squat without coming to full lockout position of knees or pressing a barbell without locking out elbows.

Nutrients - Components of food that help nourish the body: that is, they provide energy or serve as "building materials." These nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water, etc.

Nutrition - The applied science of eating to foster greater health, fitness, and muscular gains. Through correct application of nutritional practices, you can selectively add muscle mass to your physique, or totally strip away all body fat, revealing the hard-earned muscles lying beneath your skin.

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O

Obliques - Abbreviation for external obliques, the muscles to either side of abdominals that rotate and flex the trunk.

Odd Lifts - Exercises used in competition other than snatch and clean and jerk, such as squats, bench presses, and barbell curls.

Olympic Barbell - A special type of barbell used in weightlifting and powerlifting competitions, but also used by bodybuilders in heavy basic exercises such as squats, bench presses, barbell bent rows, standing barbell curls, standing barbell presses, and deadlifts. An Olympic barbell sans collars weighs 45 pounds, and each collar weighs five pounds.

One Rep Max - The heaviest weight with which a person can complete one full repetition. (e.g. "My max rep on the bench press is 325 pounds.")

Onion Skin - Slang denoting skin with very low percentage of subcutaneous fat which helps accentuate muscularity.

Optimal Nutrition - The best possible nutrition; distinct from merely adequate nutrition, which is characterized by no overt deficiency. This term describes people free from marginal deficiencies, imbalances, and toxicities, and who are not at risk for such.

Overload Principal - Applying a greater load than normal to a muscle to increase its capability

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P

Partial Reps - Performing an exercise without going through a complete range of motion either at the beginning or end of a rep.

Peak Contraction - Exercising a muscle until it cramps by using shortened movements. Pecs - Abbreviation for pectoral muscles of the chest.

Pecs or Pectorals - The large muscles of the chest.

Plates - The flat discs placed on the ends of barbell and dumbbell bars to increase the weight of the apparati. Although some plates are made from vinyl-covered con-crete, the best and most durable plates are manufactured from metal.

Plyometrics - Explosive movements (like jumping squats) to improve power and strength, generally for a sport.

Portion - The amount of carbohydrates or protein one should eat with each meal. A portion is the size of the palm of your hand or your clenched fist.

Poundage - The amount of weight that you use in an exercise, whether that weight is on a barbell, dumbbell, or exercise machine.

Power Lifting - A second form of competitive weightlifting (not contested in the Olympics, however) featuring three lifts: the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Power lifting is contested both nationally and internationally in a wide variety of weight classes.

Power Lifts - Three movements used in powerlifting competition: the squat, bench press and dead lift.

Power Training - System of weight training using low repetitions, heavy weights.

Progression - The act of gradually adding to the amount of resistance that you use in each exercise. Without consistent progression in your workouts, you won't overload your muscles sufficiently to promote optimum increases in hypertrophy.

Progressive Resistance - Method of training where weight is increased as muscles gain strength and endurance, the backbone of all weight training.

Protein - Proteins are the building blocks of muscle, enzymes, and sonic hor-mones. They are made up of amino acids and are essential for growth and repair in the body. A gram of protein contains four calories. Those from ani-mal sources contain the essential amino acids. Those from vegetable sources contain some but not all of the essential amino acids. Proteins are broken up by the body to produce amino acids.

Pump AKA "the pump" - The tight, blood-congested feeling in a muscle after it has been intensely trained. Muscle pump is caused by a rapid influx of blood into the muscles to remove fatigue toxins and replace supplies of fuel and oxygen. A good muscle pump indicates that you have optimally worked a muscle group.

Pumping Iron - Phrase that has been in use since the 1950s, but recently greatly popularized. Lifting weights.

Pumped - Slang meaning the muscles have been made large by increasing blood supply to them through exercise.

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Q

Quads - Abbreviation for quadriceps femoris muscles, muscles on top of legs, which consist of 4 parts (heads).

Quality Training - Training just before bodybuilding competition where intervals between sets are drastically reduced to enhance muscle mass and density, and low-calorie diet is followed to reduce body fat.

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R

Range of Motion (ROM) - Refers to the limits of motion of the joints and muscles associated with an exercise.

Rep - The number of times you lift and lower a weight in one set of an exercise. For example, if you lift and lower a weight 10 times before set-ting the weight down, you have completed 10 "reps" in one set.

Rep Out - Repeat the same exercise over and over until you are unable to do any more.

Reps - Abbreviation for REPETITIONS.

Resistance Training - Working out with weights or using your body to resist some other force. This includes a wide spectrum of motion, from push-ups to dumbbell curls.

Rest Interval - Pause between sets of an exercise.

Rest Period - The amount of time you allow between sets and exercises.

Rest-Pause Training - Training method where you press out one difficult repetition, then replace bar in stands, then after a 10-20 second rest, do another rep, etc.

Ripped - Slang meaning extreme muscularity.

Roid or Roids - Slang for ANABOLIC STEROID.

Routine - Also called a training schedule or program, a routine is the total list of exercises, sets, and reps (and sometimes weights) used in one training session.

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S

Saturated fats - These are bad fats. They are called saturated because they contain no open spots on their carbon skeletons. These bad fats have been shown to raise cholesterol levels in the body. Sources of these fats include animal foods and hydrogenated vegetable oils, such as margarine.

Set - Group of reps (lifting and lowering a weight) of an exercise after which you take a brief rest period. For example, if you complete 10 reps, set the weight down, complete eight more reps, set the weight down again, and repeat for six more reps, you have completed three sets of the exercise.

Slow Twitch Muscle - Muscle cells that contract slowly, are resistant to fatigue and are utilized in endurance activities such as long-distance running, cycling or swimming.

Spot - Assist if called upon by someone performing an exercise.

Spotter - Training partners who stand by to act as safety helpers when you perform such heavy exercises as squats and bench presses. If you get stuck under the weight or begin to lose control of it, spotters can rescue you and prevent needless injuries.

Steriods AKA Roids - Prescription drugs which mimic male hormones, but without most of the androgenic side effects of actual testosterone. Many bodybuilders use these danger-ous drugs to help increase muscle mass and strength.

Strength - The ability of a muscle to produce maximum amount of force.

Strength Training - Using resistance weight training to build maximum muscle force.

Stretch - A type of exercise program in which you assume exaggerated postures that stretch muscles, joints, and connective tissues, hold these positions for several seconds, relax and then repeat the postures. Regular stretching exercise promotes body flexibility.

Stretch Marks - Tears (slight scars) in skin caused if muscle or fat tissue has expanded in volume faster than skin can grow.

Superset - A superset is when one set is done directly after the other with no rest in between. For example a superset could be bench press and dumbell flies.

Supplement - This is a term used to describe a preparation such as a tablet, pill, or powder that contains nutrients. Supplements are used to help you achieve optimal nutrient intake.

Swole - A compliment regarding the overall muscularity or massiveness of a physique or muscle. To look swole is to look muscular, big, massive, or huge.

Symmetry - The shape or general outline of a person's body, as when seen in silhouette. If you have good sym-metry, you will have relatively wide shoulders, flaring lats, a small waist-hip structure, and generally small joints.

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T

Tendon - A band or cord of strong, fibrous tissue that connects muscles to bone.

Testosterone - The male hormone primarily responsible for the maintenance of muscle mass and strength induced by heavy training. Testosterone is secondarily responsible for developing such secondary male sex characteristics as a deep voice, body hair, and male pattern baldness.

Training Straps - Cotton or leather straps wrapped around wrists, then under and over a bar held by clenched hands to aid in certain lifts (rowing, chin-ups, shrugs, dead lifts, cleans, etc.) where you might lose your grip before working muscle to desired capacity-

Training to Failure - Continuing a set until it is impossible to compete another rep without assistance.

Traps - Abbreviation for trapezius muscles, the largest muscles of the back and neck that draw head backward and rotate scapula.

Tri Sets - Alternating back and forth between 3 exercises until prescribed number of sets is completed.

Trimming Down - To gain hard muscular appearance by losing body fat.

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U

Unsaturated Fat - These are 'good' fats. They are called unsaturated because they have one or more open spots on their carbon skeletons. This category of fats includes the essential fatty acids linoleic and linolenic. The main sources of these fats are fromm plant foods, such as safflower, sunflower, arid flaxseed oils.

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V

Variable Resistance - Strength training equipment where the machine varies amount of weight being lifted to match strength curve for a particular exercise-usually with a cam, lever arm or hydraulic cylinder. Also referred to as "ACCOMMODATING RESISTANCE."

Vascularity - Increase in size and number of observable veins. Highly desirable in bodybuilding.

Vitamins - Organic compounds that are vital to Tile, indispensable to bodily function, and needed in minute amounts. They are calorie-free essential nutrients. Many of them function as coenzymes. supporting a multitude of biological functions.

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W

Warm Up - The 10-15-minute session of light calisthenics, aerobic exercise, and stretching taken prior to handling heavy bodybuilding training movements. A good warm-up helps to prevent injuries and actually allows you to get more out of your training than if you went into a workout totally cold.

Weight Lifting Belt or "weight belt" - Thick leather belt used to support lower back. Used while doing squats, military presses, dead lifts, bent rowing, etc

Workout - A bodybuilding or weight-training session.

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X

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Supplements Glossary

A

ActiVin - A grape seed extract which acts as a powerful antioxidant.

Amino Acids - Amino Acids are the "Building Blocks" of the body. Eight are essential (cannot be manufactured by the body) the rest are non-essential (can be manufactured by the body with proper nutrition). Besides building cells and repairing tissue, they form antibodies, they are part of the enzyme & hormonal system; they build RNA and DNA and they carry oxygen throughout the body. Proteins are made up of amino acids. The difference between full spectrum amino acids and regular protein powders is that protein powders have fillers, sweeteners, dyes and extra carbohydrates.

Androgen - Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. This includes the activity of the accessory male sex organs and development of male secondary sex characteristics. Androgens, which were first discovered in 1936, are also called androgenic hormones or testoids.

Androstenedione - A weak androgenic steroid secreted by the adrenal cortex, testes, and ovary. In normal males less than 5% of their testosterone comes from the conversion of adrenal androstenedione. Androstenedione is converted to testosterone by the enzyme 17-ketoreductase. Androstenedione and testosterone are converted to estrone and estradiol in peripheral tissues (primarily in adipose tissue but also in muscle, kidney, liver and the hypothalamus) by aromatase. The conversion of androstenedione and testosterone accounts for more than 75% of the estrogens in the plasma of normal men. The rest is synthesized in the testes. Gonadotropin secretion may be partially controlled by estrogen formation in the hypothalamus.

Antioxidants - Agents that inhibit or neutralize potentially harmful compounds known as free radicals. Free radicals are produced during metabolic activity. High levels of free radicals may eventually lead to impaired functioning and destruction of neurons and other bodily cells. Certain antioxidants are thought to neutralize free radicals before cellular damage occurs.

Arthred - A patented form of hydrolyzed collagen protein (HCL), which forms the framework of human cartilage. The effectiveness of HCL in promoting healthy joints was demonstrated through $10 million in worldwide clinical trials.

ATP - ATP is a molecule which consists of the nitrogenous base adenine linked to the sugar ribose and which has a chain of three phosphate groups attached to the ribose in a linear fashion. ATP is present in all living cells and serves as an energy source for many metabolic processes; energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP. It is the single most important molecule in all living things since it serves as the currency for energy in biological systems.

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B

BCAA's (branch chain amino acids) - Branch chain amino acids (BCAA's), valine, leucine, and isoleucine, make up approximately 1/3 of muscle protein. BCAA's reduce muscle fatigue, speed recovery, decrease the loss of other amino acids from muscle during exercise and help the body absorb protein. BCAA's are rapidly depleted from the muscle when training. Taking BCAA’s before and/or during a work out will increase performance and delay fatigue. Taking BCAA's immediately after or with a post work out meal will lower cortisol (destroys muscle) levels and replace BCAA levels in the muscles faster.

Bee Pollen - Bee Pollen is natural material produced by anthers of flowering plants and gathered by bees. It has high concentrations of protein and nutrients. Bee pollen has been used as a high energy food source for centuries, it is also said to promote a healthy immune system. Bee Pollen is a good source of Protein, B Complex vitamins, Vitamin C, essential fatty acids, enzymes, carotenes, minerals and plant sterols (phytonutrients). Bee pollen has some anti-microbial effects and may help allergy sufferers. It also helps fatigue and fatigue related problems.

Beta-carotene - This nutrient is one of the most important antioxidants and free radical 'hunters' which has been found to strengthen the immune system, destroy carcinogens (cancer-causing substances), guard against heart disease and stroke and lower cholesterol levels. The body converts Beta-Carotene to vitamin A, which is necessary for healthy skin and mucous membranes (the body's first line of defense against invading micro-organisms).

Beta-Ecdysterone - Beta-Ecdysterone is a sterol produced by plants. Beta Ecdysterone is being hailed as the hottest new supplement to hit the market since Creatine. Beta Ecdysterone produces an increase in protein absorption and can enhance nitrogen retention with the effect of increased work capacity. Beta Ecdysterone also has an anti-oxidant effect. A good dose is 40 mg of active Beta-Ecdysterone (after standardization) 2-3 times daily preferably with a protein containing meal.

Bioperine - A patented thermogenic nutrient; increases the body’s efficiency in the uptake of nutrients.

Biotin (Vitamin B) - Essential for metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates.

Boron - This mineral is important for healthy bones, and especially for the metabolism of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous. Boron is also helpful for proper mental function and alertness. Seniors can especially benefit from taking boron supplements since they generally have more problems with calcium absorption.

Bromelain - Bromelain is made from pineapple, bromelain contains protein digesting enzymes. Bromelain supplements aid digestion and also help reduce swelling, bruising and healing time following surgery and/or physical injuries. Bromelain supplements also help coughs and reduce the nasal mucus associated with sinusitis and the inflammation that accompanies hay fever. Bromelain supplements may help reduce pain associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, in addition, long-term use of Bromelain supplements may be helpful for connective tissue disorders such as scleroderma, bursitis and tendonitis.

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C

Calcium - Calcium, the most abundant mineral in our bodies, is essential for bone and tooth formation, health and strength Calcium reduces the risk of Osteoporosis (thinning bones and increased risk of fractures). Calcium is found in foods (the body cannot produce calcium). Teeth and bones contain 99 percent of our body's calcium (our tissues, blood, and other fluids contain the remainder) mostly in the form of calcium phosphate. Healthy bones are continually remodeling as parts are reabsorbed and rebuilt, a lack of calcium will mean bones canÂ’t grow properly or maintain their strength as we age. Calcium is also used for muscle growth and contraction, conduction of nerve impulses, stimulating hormone secretion and stimulating blood clotting, regulation of heartbeat, and tranquilizing. Getting enough calcium in your diet is important as the body loses calcium every day which should be replaced via your diet. If you do not ingest enough calcium, the body will take calcium from bones where it is stored. Experts recommend an intake of 1000-1200mg per day (for optimum absorption, aim to take amounts of less than 500mg several times a day). Supplements and calcium fortified foods can help you meet these requirements. The body needs vitamin D to absorb calcium.

Calcium Pyruvate - Calcium Pyruvate is a compound that occurs naturally in the body. Calcium Pyruvate is the end product of the metabolism of sugar and starch. Supplementation with Calcium Pyruvate increases metabolism, accelerating the burning of carbohydrates and fats. Calcium Pyruvate improves exercise performance by enhancing the transport of glucose into muscle cells. Glucose is the bodyÂ’s cellular fuel, increased glucose utilisation and muscle glycogen retention can mean greater endurance and less fatigue during high intensity sports, burning more fat and thus better gains in lean muscle. Calcium Pyruvate can enhance fat and weight loss by increasing metabolism and fat utilization.

Calories - Measurement of the potential of food to supply energy.

Capric Acid - Capric Acid is a fatty acid which part of a group of fats known as “medium chain triglycerides” or “MCT’s”. MCTS are important fatty acids that function differently from usual dietary fat, providing energy like carbohydrates so less fat is stored in the body (hence they are sometimes called “carbo-lipids”). MCTs’ are also known as Captric acid or caprylic acid. MCT’s produce ketones which are used by the muscles in the body to produce energy and so can help prevent the breakdown of muscle tissue during intense exercise. MCT’s are absorbed quickly into the bloodstream for use in producing energy thus sparing muscle glycogen and helping to prolong endurance and stamina, MCT’s don’t result in the tiredness associated simple sugars.

Carbohydrates - The body’s principal source of energy. Simple carbohydrates come from sugars; complex carbohydrates come from starches and fiber. The body converts them to glucose, which is used to energize cells.

Carnitine - An amino acid essential for the breakdown of fat into energy. Carnitine may improve the utilization of fats for energy and can be beneficial in conditions associated with impaired fat breakdown and energy production. Carnitine may be beneficial in heart disease, enhancing physical performance, Alzhiemers disease, diabetes, liver disease, and protection against drug toxicity.

Cholesterol - Substance manufactured by the liver and other organs and consumed via animal fat. High-fat diets increase the amount made. It is believed that high levels lead to collection of cholesterol in the arteries, possibly leading to serious health risks.

Chromium - Chromium is an essential trace mineral which aids the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein. Chromium picolinate is used to build lean muscle, prevent and treat diabetes, reduce blood cholesterol and promote weight loss. Diabetics should only take Chromium Picolinate on advice. Chromium is important in the burning of carbohydrates and fats in the body, and helps insulin push blood sugar into our cells. Chromium in food is not easily absorbed Chromium Picolinate, the form of the mineral commonly sold as a supplement, is more easily absorbed. Improper metabolism of carbohydrate, fats and proteins can lead to maintaining high blood glucose which will signal the body to store calories as fat, Chromium Picolinate helps prevent this. Research also suggests that Chromium Picolinate supplementation may be beneficial to the cardiovascular system by balancing cholesterol levels. Studies have indicated that Chromium Picolinate supplementation increases HDL (good) cholesterol, thus countering the effects of increased LDL and decreased HDL (bad) cholesterol and supporting cardiovascular health. Chromium picolinate taken in 2mg daily doses may increase lean body mass while decreasing fat.

CLA - (Conjugated linoleic acid) is a naturally occurring nutrient which scientists have discovered exerts a positive effect on protein and fat metabolism.

Cod Liver Oil - Cod Liver Oil is an oil obtained from the livers of cod and similar fishes. Cod Liver Oil taken orally as a dietary supplement is a rich source of vitamins A and D, DHA, EPA and other omega 3 fatty acids. Cod liver oil acts as a natural blood thinner that can keep platelets from sticking together and reduce the likelihood of clogged arteries. Extensive research found that the elongated omega-3 fatty acids in cod liver oil reduce the pain and damage in inflamed joints and joint cartilage. Supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids as found in Cod Liver Oil may be beneficial to those suffering from inflammatory skin disorders (a study published in January 2003 found the intake of long chain omega-3 fatty acids from cod liver oil may be very beneficial). Some studies indicate that supplementing with cod liver oil may result in an increase of the childÂ’s IQ by an average of 7 points.

Coenzyme Q 10 - Vital to energy production at the cellular level; used for endurance improvement. Supplementation may decrease fatigue, muscle weakness and obesity. Also recognized for its strong antioxidant properties.

Colosolic Acic - Colosolic Acic (or corosolic acid, also known as Banaba or botanical inusin) is extracted from the leaves of a plant known as Lagerstroemia speciosa a tree which grows in Souteast Asia. Colosolic Acic is used as an herbal remedy for a number of disorders including diabetes and obesity.

Copper - Mineral important in the formation of red blood cells; keeps bones, blood vessels, nerves and the immune system healthy.

Creatine - Creatine naturally occurs in your body. Creatine has been subject to more research than any other supplement. During intense exercise (for example sprinting, or training with weights), your body uses Creatine to provide your body with energy. However, stores within the body only last for about 10 seconds before becoming depleted. Studies have shown that athletes consuming additional Creatine in their diet increase Creatine levels in their bodies which has the effect of dramatically enhancing performance and strength Creatine also speeds up lean muscle gains. Test subjects given Creatine for 12 weeks in combination with a weight-training programme gained 24% and 32% more strength in the bench press and squat than the subjects given a placebo. They also gained twice as much lean muscle despite the fact they did the same amount of training. These kinds of results are typical for virtually anyone using Creatine. Creatine is therefore perfect if you're impatient for faster gains in muscle strength and size. Creatine can be obtained in a wholefood diet by eating muscular meat and dairy products, it would be almost impossible to get enough from a diet to have any effect on performance. The Creatine in food can also be damaged by cooking. Many athletes rely on Creatine supplements to provide them with a competitive edge.

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D

D-Glucuronolactone - D-Glucuronolactone is a natural substance found in plant gums, D-Glucuronolactone detoxifies the body by speeding up the elimination of harmful substances, both endogenic (toxins within or made by the body) and exogenic (external toxins such as radiation, or pollution that penetrate the body from the outside). Supplementing with D-glucuronolactone, aids the transportation of amino acids during amino acid metabolism.

Dextrose - Dextrose is also known as Glucose or Blood Sugar and is the simplest carbohydrate. Dextrose is absorbed into body cells and converted into the energy to power the cells. Dextrose occurs naturally in fruits and other parts of plants. Dextrose is included in supplements to help maintain the bioavailability of the supplements.

DHEA - Dehydroepiandrosterone - is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Primary function is to produce estrogen and testosterone.

Dietary Fiber - Consists of both soluble (dissolves in water) and insoluble (does not dissolve in water) fiber. Diets high in dietary fiber and low in fat may have a protective effect against many chronic illnesses, including heart disease and some cancers, and may reduce LDL (“bad”) cholesterol.

DMSO - DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) has the unique ability of being able to penetrate living tissue without causing damage. DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) is a by product of the wood industry and has been a commercial solvent since 1953. DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) is used in topical analgesics and has been used by the pharmaceutical industry since the 1960Â’s. DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) is in nicotine patches where it is used to transport nicotine into the skin tissues and through them into the blood stream. DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) can be used in topical supplements to transport many and varied active ingredients into and through the skin.

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EPA - Eicosapentaenoic acid (E.P.A.) is a type of Essential Fatty Acid. Fatty Acids are the building blocks of fats, some are “essential” fats that the body can’t make and so we must ingest them in the foods we eat. The Essential Fatty Acids are (a) Alpha Linoleic Acid or Omega 3 this can be converted to Eicosapentaenoic acid (E.P.A.) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (D.H.A.); and (b) Linoleic Acid or Omega 6 which can be converted into Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA); Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA) or Arachidonic Acid (AA). Omega-9 fatty acid is necessary to health yet "non-essential" because the body can manufacture a modest amount on its own, provided other Essential Fatty Acids are present.

Ephedrine - A sympathetic nerve stimulant resembling adrenaline, its effect on the unstriped muscular fibres is remarkable. It acts promptly in relieving swellings of the mucous membrane. It has valuable antispasmodic properties, acts on the air passages and is of benefit in asthma and hay fever; it is also employed for rheumatism; a 5 to 10 per cent solution has mydriatic properties, prophylactically used for low blood pressure in influenza, pneumonia, etc. Used in tablet form for oral or hypodermic administration and in ampuls for hypodermic, intramuscular and intravenous use. It can advantageously be used in solution with liquid paraffin, either alone or in conjunction with methol camphor and oil of thyme. Dose, 1/2 to 1 grain. Synonyms include Ephedra, and Ma Huang.

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Fats - Provide essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body. They transport fat-soluble vitamins and regulate blood cholesterol levels. Provide energy when the body’s carbohydrate level is depleted. Provide protection to vital organs. While fats are essential to the body, many people consume much more than necessary to remain healthy.

Flaxseed Oil - The Seed of the flax plant has long been used to prepare balms. Flax seeds (also called linseeds) are used today for their therapeutic oil. Flaxseed Oil is rich in essential fatty acids (essential fatty acids play a critical role in body structure and body function but “essential” means they cannot be made in the body and must be injested). Flaxseed has been used as a dietary supplement to treat many ailments, from heart disease to lupus. Essential fatty acids protect cell membranes which helps them admit healthy substances while blocking damaging ones. Flaxseed oil is a rich source of the essential fatty acid alpha linolenic acid (omega-3). Omega-3 (also found in fish) helps reduce the risk of heart disease. Flaxseeds also contain linoleic acid (omega-6) the same healthy fat that is found in vegetable oils. Flaxseed also contain lignans which appear to have a positive affect on the body’s hormones. Flaxseed Oil also contains Oleic Acid (Omega 9) which is a “non-essential” fatty acid. Oleic acid is a mono-unsaturated fatty acid and is the chief fatty acid found in olive oil Oleic acids help lower levels of the harmful type of cholesterol found in the blood.

Folic Acid - Vitamin important in the synthesis of DNA, tissue growth and the production of red blood cells.

Fructooligosaccharides - Fructooligosaccharides, also known as “prebiotics”, are fibre carbohydrates which occur naturally in food and stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria (as apposed to “probiotics” which are themselves the beneficial bacteria). Fructooligosaccharides are found in garlic, rye, brown sugar, bananas, beans, blueberries, onions and barley in trace amounts. You would need to eat large amounts of these foods to obtain a therapeutic dose. Simple sugars in these foods also weaken the benefits. Fructooligosaccharides taste sweet because they are sugars, but they not broken down by enzymes and therefore remain intact and undigested. They leave the small intestine undigested and arrive at the large intestine where they become fuel for the most important “friendly” bacteria - bifidobacterium. Fructooligosaccharides lower blood fats, reduce the risk of colon cancer, increase the absorption of calcium in the intestine and relieve diarrhea induced by antibiotics. Ten grams of Fructooligosaccharides per day as a dietary supplement is thought to be optimum to produce increases in good bacteria. Some people experience flatulence as a side effect associated with taking Fructooligosaccharides as a supplement, especially people who are lactose intolerant. Taking a smaller dose and increasing gradually to the desired amount can help.

Functional Food - Food or food ingredient that has been shown to affect specific functions or systems in the body. Functional foods play an important role in disease prevention.

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Gamma-linolenic acid - Nutrient that increases the rate at which the body burns fat for energy; anti-inflammatory properties and other healthful benefits.

Ginseng - An herb (Korean - Panax Ginseng) (Siberian - Eleutherococcus senticosus) (American - panax quinqefolium),. The most costly root, ginseng is a low-growing, shade-loving perennial herb of the Araliaceae family. It is cultivated in China, Japan, Korea and Russia and can be taken in capsule form or as a tea. The United States can also cultivate this root.

Glucosamine - Glucosamine sulfate and n-acetyl glucosamine occur widely in the exoskeleton of arthropods and crustaceans as their biopolymer, chitin. Glucosamine is also a basic constituent of cartilage. Glucosamine is a natural sugar produced by the body and found in certain foods. Glucosamine stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, two essential building blocks of cartilage. In most cases, the joints produce sufficient Glucosamine to keep the cartilage in good repair, but if they fail to do so, it dries out, degenerates, cracks, and may even completely wear away. Left unprotected, the joints then become swollen, stiff, inflamed, tender, and painful--the condition known as osteoarthritis. Advocates believe that by taking artificially synthesized Glucosamine sulfate supplements, osteoarthritis sufferers can "jump start" the natural production of Glucosamine by their own bodies.

Glutamine - A non-essential amino acid, glutamine is considered to be a brain fuel. Glutamine has been used therapeutically for alcoholism, mild depression and to reduce the craving for sweets. Glutamine is very important in the functioning of the metabolism and muscle maintenance. Glutamine supplementation can help prevent muscle and other tissue breakdown by providing the body with nitrogen and fuel.

Glycerine - Glycerine is a source of energy the body uses as a starting material in making more complex molecules. Glycerine is metabolised in the liver before it is converted to glucose. Glycerine is often mixed with other foods and is used in supplements to avoid a sharp rise in blood sugar levels.

Green Tea - Green Tea is the dried leaves of the tea plant. Carnellia Siensis black tea is oxided green tea (both have been used for thousands of years as beverage and medicine.). Green tea extract is a bioflavonoid rich, potent extract which is an anti-oxidant. Green Tea has a high content of polyphenols, which are a class of bioflavonoids. Green Tea is a powerful all round health supplement which also inhibits bacteria that cause food poisoning, blocks the attachment of the bacteria associated with dental cavities to the teeth and helps protect against the inflammatory and carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation. Green tea is non toxic both in acute dosage and high long-term dosage.

Guarana - Guarana (Paullina Cupana) is the nut-like seed of a climbing vine that grows in the Amazon basin in Brazil. Guarana has been used for centuries by the indigenous people of this area as a natural energy supplement. Over 25% of the soft drinks in Brazil contain Guarana as a main ingredient. The Guarana berry contains a form of caffeine that is 2.5 times stronger than the caffeine found in coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Guarana is a natural supplement to increase performance, physical or mental. Guarana can help after strenuous exercise by cleansing the body of lactic acid buildup and bringing energy levels back to normal.

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H

Herbs - Plants containing many nutrients and phytochemicals, providing an array of health benefits. Herbs have been known for centuries, but are now becoming the basics of many modern medicines.

Hydroxycitric Acid - Naturally-occurring nutrient with the ability to inhibit the synthesis of carbohydrates into fat; also works as an appetite suppressant. Found in Relìv products under the brand name CitriMax®.

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I

Inositol - A nutrient that helps prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver; aids in the detoxification of metabolic wastes and toxins.

Insulin - A protein pancreatic hormone that is essential especially for the metabolism of carbohydrates and is used in the treatment and control of diabetes mellitus.

Iodene - A mineral necessary for normal cell metabolism. Required by the thyroid gland in the synthesis and secretion of hormones.

Iodinated Amino Acids - Iodinated Amino Acids are very useful in promoting thyroxin (the hormone produced by the thyroid gland) because thyroxin is made of two amino acids that are linked together but in order to be biologically active, the molecules must have at least three iodine molecules attached to the ring structures of the amino acids. Iodinated Amino Acids can be regarded as precursors for thyroxin. Taking Iodinated Amino Acids as a dietary supplement may help increase throid function and speed up metabolism helping to burn fat.

Iron - A mineral essential to the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin (which carries oxygen in the blood and muscles, respectively). A part of several proteins and enzymes in the body.

Isoflavones - Compounds found in soy which have been shown to significantly reduce serum cholesterol levels — the leading risk factor for heart disease — as well as alleviate menopausal symptoms in women and assist in combating numerous other serious health risks.

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L

L-Alanine - L-Alanine is found in concentrated amounts in meats, wheat germ and cottage cheese. L-Alanine can help prevent hypoglycaemia, and fatigue. L-Alanine enhances concentration and immunity (helps your body produce lymphocytes), supporting the immune system and L-Alanine has also been used for seizure disorders.

L-Aspartic Acid - L-Aspartic Acid is a non-essential amino acid which your body gets from protein food or makes from glutamate. L-Aspartic Acid is used by the body to metabolise carbohydrates and protein. In the body L-Aspartic Acid is converted to glucose. L-Aspartic Acid is a major factor in the bodyÂ’s energy cycle and can be used as a supplement to increase resistance to fatigue. L-Aspartic Acid has been shown to increase both stamina and endurance levels in athletes. L-Aspartic Acid removes waste products from the body, it can help the body remove ammonia (a toxic waste product which is converted to urea before it is excreted in urine).

L-carnitine - A nutrient responsible for the transportation of fats to cells for use in energy production.

L-Cysteine - L-Cysteine is a non-essential amino acid which acts as an antioxidant. L-Cystine and L-Cysteine are two amino acids that the body can readily convert from one to the other as required. L-Cystine is the more stable form. Cysteine can be synthesized in the body from L-Methionine.

L-Glutamic Acid - L-Glutamic Acid is one of the non-essential amino acids. L-Glutamic Acid is used along with L-Glutamine and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in brain metabolism and is fuel for both the brain and the body. L-Glutamic Acid helps transport potassium into the brain. L-Glutamic Acid combines to form L-Glutamine, in doing so L-Glutamic Acid detoxifies ammonia. L-Glutamic Acid helps to metabolise other amino acids, sugars and fats. L-Glutamic Acid also increases blood sugar levels and is used in the treatment of hypoglycaemia. L Glutamic acid can be found in protein supplements such as protein powder/bars and amino acid tablets.

L-Glycine - L-Glycine is a non-essential amino acid with high concentrations in skin and connective tissue. L-Glycine has the simplest structure in amino acids, allowing it to make protein chains easily. This makes L-Glycine useful for repairing damaged tissues and promoting healing. L – Glycine promotes muscle growth and development and helps keep the prostate gland healthy. Taken in does of 2g or more, L-Glycine can aid growth hormone release. Glycine also supplies creatine and supports glycogen storage in the muscles, making glucose available for the production of energy. L-Glycine can be found in protein supplements such as protein powder/bars and amino acid tablets.

L-Isoleucine - L-Isoleucine is an “essential” amino acid (amin acids are building blocks of protein ) which is termed a “branched chain amino acid”. L-Isoleucine is essential to the formation of hemoglobin.

L-Lysine - L-Lysine is one of the essential amino acids (classified as essential as your body is unable to produce it and so must get it from the foods that supply it). L-Lysine is used by the body to build new tissue L-Lysine is required for optimum growth. L-Lysine helps to form collagen which in turn makes up bone, cartilage and other connective tissue. L-Lysine produces L-Carnitine which helps with stress, fat metabolism and fatigue.

L-Ornithine - L-Ornithine is a non-essential amino acid synthesised in the body from L-Arginine. L-Ornithine is then a precursor to L-Citrulline, L-Proline and L-Glutamic Acid. L-Ornithine can help the body to stimulate the release of growth hormone which helps increase muscle mass whilst promoting the metabolism of excess body fat. L-Ornithine is essential for proper immune system and liver function. L-Ornithine also helps insulin release and helps form urea, detoxifying ammonia which is poisonous to living cells. L-Ornithine is found in large amounts in skin and connective tissue and so helps healing and repairing damaged tissue.

L-Proline - L- Proline is a non-essential amino acid (non-essential amino acids can be made within the body). L-Proline is important for joint and tendon functions and good heart muscles. L-Proline, and L-Lysine are precursors of hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline which are two constituents of collagen which in turn is the main fibrous protein that is found in bone, cartilage and other tissue. L-Proline is synthesized in the body from L-Glutamine. Low protein or vegetarian diets may result in less than optimal production of L-Proline.

L-Taurine - L-Taurine is a non essential amino acid (i.e. one that your body can make for itself and does not need to get from the diet). L-Taurine is a specialized amino acid used in the body for the central nervous system and all body muscle including the heart muscle. Taurine is also a potent antioxidant L Taurine is also an antitoxin. In these roles L-Taurine is particularly important to the liver and immune system.

L-Threonine - L-Threonine is an essential amino acid (essential amino acids cannot be made by the body and must be obtained from food). L-Threonine is vital for normal growth and helps store energy in the liver and the muscles. L-Threonine is lipotrophic it acts to break down saturated fats into unsaturated ones. L-Threonine also boosts the immune system by producing antibodies. L Threonine is also an important constituent of collagen which in turn is the main fibrous protein found in bone.

L-Tyrosine - L-Tyrosine is an amino acid (protein building block) that the body synthesizes from phenylalanine, another amino acid. L-Tyrosine is important to the structure of almost all proteins in the body. L-Tyrosine plays an important role in cell production and the function of the adrenal, pituitary and thyroid glands. L-Tyrosine is also the precursor of several neurotransmitters, including L-dopa, dopamine, nor epinephrine (an appetite inhibitory neurotransmitter), and epinephrine. L-Tyrosine also stimulates the release of growth hormone which causes muscle growth and reduces body fat.

Linseed - The Seed of the flax plant has long been used to prepare balms. Flax seeds (also called linseeds) are used today for their therapeutic oil. Linseed or Flaxseed Oil is rich in essential fatty acids.

Lysine - Essential amino acid. Important for growth, tissue repair, and the production of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Research indicates that lysine may be useful in the treatment of migraine and herpes simplex. Precursor to carnitine in the body.

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N

Natraceuticals - Natraceuticals are a sub group of whole foods and may be referred to as super foods, they have health benefits beyond those of normal foods. Natraceuticals are manufactured products and supplements containing herbal remedies, large doses of vitamins and/or minerals or other nutrients which when taken have a positive effect on health. Natraceutical supplements are sometimes be considered natural alternatives for pharmaceuticals.

Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Crucial for conversion of food into energy; helps maintain normal functioning of the skin, nerves and digestive system.

Nitric Oxide - Nitric Oxide is a molecule used in the body for key physiological processes and is synthesized from the amino acid L-Arginine. Nitric Oxide is a “vasodilator” which encourages the bloods vessels in the body to dilate (relax) which increases blood flow to the body’s working muscles. Nitric Oxide allows more oxygen and nutrients to be delivered to the muscles which can give fuller and longer lasting “pumps” and increased overall muscle gain.

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M

Magnesium - A mineral aiding many basic functions, including metabolism, heart rhythm, bone growth and the function of nerves and muscles.

Manganese - A mineral playing a vital role in reproduction and energy production; very important in building healthy bones. Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) – Provide twice the energy of carbohydrates; have no significant effect on insulin production. Improve the absorption of amino acids and reduce muscle tissue breakdown.

Milk Thistle - Milk Thistle (also known as Silymarin) is a natural herb that has been used for centuries as a liver treatment and is commonly used today as a dietary supplement to aid liver support. Milk Thistle contains Silymarin which is a flavonoid (flavonoids support health as anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic and anti viral agents, they are also antioxidants which protect against free radicals, unstable oxygen molecules which are potentially damaging by-products of the bodyÂ’s metabolism and which may contribute to the development of cardio-vascular disease and cancer). Milk thistle is also thought to help regenerate the liver.

Molybdenum - A mineral required to activate certain enzymes that are necessary for thousands of bodily functions.

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Octacosanol - A naturally derived wheat germ oil concentrate which has been clinically proven to increase oxygen utilization when exercising.

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P

PABA - Functions in the breakdown and use of proteins in the formation of blood cells.

Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5) - Essential in metabolizing food; aids in the synthesis of various body chemicals, such as hormones and cholesterol.

Phosphatidylserine (PS) - Increases the rate of protein synthesis during periods normally marked by muscle breakdown. Can aid in memory function.

Phosphorus - A mineral vital to energy production; helps build bone and form cell membranes and genetic material.

Potassium - Potassium/Potassium Phosphate is a mineral which assists in muscle contraction and in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in body cells. Potassium is used for regulating heartbeat and helps muscles contract and relax. Potassium is also important in sending nerve impulses as well as releasing energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism. Potassium can be found in potatoes, spinach, lentils, kidney beans, split peas, butternut squash, watermelon, raisins, yoghurt, orange juice, brussel sprouts, courgettes, bananas and broccoli.

Protein - The building blocks of the body. Composed of amino acids, which are vital to the body’s growth and function. Supplies valuable enzymes that regulate bodily functions. Key to muscle building and development.

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Quercetin - Quercetin is a concentrated form of Bioflavenoids derived from citrus fruit. Bioflavonoids are also known as flavenoids. These compounds are occasionally classed together as Vitamin “P”. Quercetin is a water-soluble plant pigment. While Quercetin is not considered essential, it does support health as an anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and anti-viral agent.

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RDI - Recommended Dietary Intake. Estimates of daily minimal dietary intake of established nutrients provided by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council. Optimal levels have not been formally established.

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Saw Palmetto Berry - An herb (Sarena Serrulata). Saw Palmetto is a small palm tree with red berries which were used by Native American Indians to ease certain ailments. The red berries contain high concentrations of plant sterols, including B-sistosterol, which act as anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, the berries provide a variety of fatty acids and phytosterols which inhibit the action of dihydrotestosterone, the compound thought to be responsible for the enlargement of the prostate.

Selenium - Selenium (Se) has been shown to prevent or slow aging and is an essential component of key antioxidant enzymes (anti-oxidants protect against free radicals, unstable oxygen molecules which are potentially damaging by-products of the bodyÂ’s metabolism and which may contribute to the development of cardio-vascular disease and cancer This anti-oxidant action helps in the body by slowing cellular aging due to oxidation). Selenium also helps keep youthful elasticity in tissues and is essential for normal growth and development. Selenium can be taken as a dietary supplement either on its own or included in a multivitamin and multi mineral supplement and is usually included in meal replacement powders and bars.

Sodium - Helps regulate blood pressure and water balance in the body.

St. Johns wort - An herb (Hypericum perforatum). St. John's Wort is an aromatic perennial herb which has been used for centuries for a wide variety of conditions. The plant's active compound, hypericin, has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Hypericin has also been shown to have monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiting activity, mimicking the action of antidepressant agents.

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T

Testosterone - A naturally occurring androgenic hormone.

Tocotrienols - Tocotrienols along with tocopherols are from the vitamin E family of nutrients. Tocotrienols are derived from plants and are anti oxidants (anti-oxidants help in the body by slowing cellular aging due to oxidation). Vitamin E supplies oxygen to the blood which is then carried around the body to the organs helping with fatigue and nourishing cells and helping with muscle and nerve maintenance. Vitamin E also helps with cholesterol reduction, strengthens capillary walls and protects lungs. Most commercial vitamin E supplements do not contain the gamma form of the vitamin, depriving you of the full range of its antioxidant effects.

Tonalin (conjugated linoleic acid) - An essential fatty acid shown to reduce body fat and increase muscle tone.

Tyrosine - A nonessential amino acid but may be essential for individuals with certain diseases or nutritional concerns. May be important for neurotransmitter synthesis and mood regulation. May be useful for depression, allergies and addictive states.

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V

Vanadyl - Vanadium is an essential mineral present in many foods but one which is not easily absorbed. Trace amounts of Vanadium are essential in the diet but it is not entirely clear what role it plays in the body or what effect deficiency has on our bodies. Vanadium is found in several forms such as Vanadyl Sulphate and Vanadate.

Vitamin A - Fat-soluble vitamin that promotes good vision; helps form and maintain healthy skin, teeth and skeletal and soft tissue; possibly increases resistance to infection.

Vitamin B1 - Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is used in the body to digest carbohydrates and in the bodyÂ’s metabolism to generate energy. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is essential for the normal function of the brain, nervous system, muscles and heart and promotes growth and muscle tone. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) also aids the circulation and helps maintain the intestines.

Vitamin B12 - Important for metabolism regulation and red blood cell production; helps maintain a healthy central nervous system.

Vitamin B2 - Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) is needed by the body to use oxygen and for the metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates to produce energy. Vitamin B2 is also needed to activate Vitamin B6 and to create Niacin (Vitamin B3). Vitamin B2 is also used for red blood cell formation, antibody production, cell respiration and growth. Vitamin B2 is also needed when protein intake is high and is most beneficial to the skin, hair and nails.

Vitamin B3 - Vitamin B3 (Niacin), promotes release of energy from foods and aids efficient nervous system function, circulation, growth and metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrates. Vitamin B3 also aids sex hormone production and reduces cholesterol levels in blood, reducing high blood pressure.

Vitamin B6 - Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is a water soluble vitamin essential for health. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is essential for more than 100 enzymes involved in synthesis and breakdown of amino acids (the building blocks of protein). Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is used for fat metabolism, red and white blood cell growth, antibody formation and for the efficient function of the nervous and lymphatic systems. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is also needed for the conversion of L-Tryptphan (an amino acid) to Niacin (Vitamin B3 which is also important to the circulatory and nervous systems.).

Vitamin C - Antioxidant that performs a variety of roles in the body, helping to promote healthy gums and teeth, aids in mineral absorption, helps heal wounds. May provide a variety of other health benefits.

Vitamin D - Promotes absorption of calcium and helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.

Vitamin E - Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin that acts as a major anti-oxidant protecting against free radicals, unstable oxygen molecules which are potentially damaging by-products of the bodyÂ’s metabolism and which may contribute to the development of cardio-vascular disease and cancer This anti-oxidant action helps in the body by slowing cellular aging due to oxidation. Vitamin E supplies oxygen to the blood which is then carried around the body to the organs helping with fatigue and nourishing cells and helping with muscle and nerve maintenance.

Vitamin K - Vital to blood clotting; may help maintain strong bones with aging.

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W

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X

Xylitol - Xylitol is a white, odorless crystalline substance that looks and tastes like sugar and was discovered in 1891 by a German chemist- Emil Fischer. Xylitol is broadly classed as a carbohydrate but is absorbed slowly by the body and not all utilised and has 40% less calories than most other carbohydrates. Xylitol has been used in foods as a bulk sweetener for decades and is useful as a sugar substitute and in diabetic foods.

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Y

Yohimbe Bark - A hormone stimulant, particularly effective in the production of testosterone. Primary Uses: as an aphrodisiac affecting both the male impotence and female frigidity. Secondary Uses: in bodybuilding and athletic formulas where more testosterone production is desired.

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Z

Zinc - Zinc is an essential mineral found in almost every cell in the body and an essential part of more than 100 enzymes. Zinc supports a healthy immune system and is used for protein synthesis, Zinc is used in the formation of collagen which is the base of bone onto which calcium is deposited. Zinc is also used for wound healing, and for a sense of taste and smell. Zinc is used to help prostrate gland function, burn and wound healing and reproductive organ growth and development.

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Bodybuilding Acronyms

A

Aminos - Amino Acids

ATP - ATP is a molecule which consists of the nitrogenous base adenine linked to the sugar ribose and which has a chain of three phosphate groups attached to the ribose in a linear fashion. ATP is present in all living cells and serves as an energy source for many metabolic processes; energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP. It is the single most important molecule in all living things since it serves as the currency for energy in biological systems.

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B

BB - Barbell, Bodybuilder

BBer - Body Builder

BCAA's - Branch Chain Amino Acids

BF - Bodyfat

BP - Bench Press

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C

CGBP - Close Grip Bench Press

CLA - Conjugated Linoleic Acid - Used to burn fat and increase muscle mass

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D

DB - Dumbbell

DE - Dynamic Effort

DOMS - Delayed Onset Muscular Soreness, the phenomena of muscle soreness from sport or exercise afflicting the body a day or two after performance.

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E

ECA - Ephedrine, Caffiene, Aspirin - stack used to lose weight/increase metabolism

EFA - Essential Fatty Acids

EGCG - Epigallocatechin Gallate

EMG - Electromyography

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F

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G

GI - Glycemic Index

GM - Good Mornings

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H

HIIT - High Intensity Interval Training

HIT - High Intensity Training

HMB - beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate – it’s produced in the body from proteins containing the amino acid leucine.

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I

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J

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K

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L

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N

NATTY - Natural

NATTY PB - Natural Peanut Butter

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M

MCT - Medium chain triglycerides

ME - Maximal Effort

MM - Muscle Magazine (Muscle&Strength Magazine - free subscription here)

MRP - Meal Replacement Powder

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O

OL - Olympic Lifting

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P

PB - Peanut Butter / Personal best

PH - Pro-Hormones

PL - Power Lifting

PR - Abbreviation for personal record.

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Q

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R

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S

SLDL - Stiff (Straight) Leg Deadlifts

SOHP - Standing over head press

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T

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U

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V

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Comments (3)

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Blaster
Posted Sun, 11/21/2010 - 03:03

Periodization (general def)=training organized into specific blocks of time which are focused on specific skills. These blocks are known as the microcycle, mesocycle, and macrocycle. Linear peridization is the oldest and most commonly used. Other non-linear methods of periodization are congugate periodization (like Westside) and undulating periodization.

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bob
Posted Wed, 06/22/2011 - 17:49

has anyone heard of deliberately cramping the calves for
hypertrophy?

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lime jello sala...
Posted Wed, 03/14/2012 - 21:48

I've read a few just right stuff here. Definitely price bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how so much attempt you place to make this type of great informative website.

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